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Weed Seed: Linaria vulgaris (Common toadflax/Butter-and-eggs)



Common Name

Yellow toadflax


Primary Noxious, Class 2 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act.


Canadian: Occurs across Canada except in NU (Brouillet et al. 2016Footnote 1).

Worldwide: Native to Europe and temperate Asia (USDA-ARS 2016Footnote 2) and introduced in North America, Chile, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand (CABI 2016Footnote 3).

Duration of life cycle


Seed or fruit type


Identification features



Surface Texture


Other Features

Habitat and Crop Association

Cultivated fields, old fields, pastures, rangelands, shores, roadsides and disturbed areas (Saner et al. 1995Footnote 4, Darbyshire 2003Footnote 5). In Canada, it is a problem in pastures and crops such as wheat, barley, oats, canola and peas (Saner et al. 1995Footnote 4, CABI 2016Footnote 3).

General Information

Yellow toadflax was once grown as an ornamental, dye and medicinal plant (Saner et al. 1995Footnote 4). This species first appeared in Ontario and Quebec at the end of the 19th century and moved into the Prairie Provinces after 1920, through contaminated alfalfa seed and as a garden plant (Saner et al. 1995Footnote 4). Yellow toadflax is a prolific seed producer and reproduces from both seed and clonal propagation (Saner et al. 1995Footnote 4).

Similar species

Melancholy toadflax (Linaria tristis)


Common toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) seeds
Common toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) seed
Common toadflax (Linaria vulgaris) seed

Similar species

Similar species: Melancholy toadflax (Linaria tristis) seeds
Similar species: Melancholy toadflax (Linaria tristis) seed
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