Language selection


April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022 Plant Health Survey Report

The objectives of the Plant Protection program within the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) are to prevent the introduction and spread within Canada of plant pests of quarantine significance, to detect and control or eradicate designated plant pests in Canada, and to certify plants and plant products for domestic and export trade.

Plant health surveys support the Plant Protection Program in a number of ways. They help to detect new populations of quarantine pests or potential quarantine pests being considered for regulation. Delimitation surveys are also conducted to determine the range of pest populations with limited distributions in Canada (ISPM no 08). Surveillance data allows Canada to maintain claims of Pest Free Area (ISPM no 04), Pest Free Place of Production & Pest Free Production Site (ISPM no 10) status, and supports our ability to meet a number of international phytosanitary standards under the International Plant Protection Convention. Surveys provide information in support of import, export and domestic regulatory programs. They are a key contribution to policy development and trade negotiations. In all cases, reliable and accurate pest distribution data provides the basis for sound regulatory decisions. The information may be used for a variety of purposes, including reasons for removing, altering, or even not establishing a quarantine regulation. Plant pest surveys are also an integral part of control and eradication programs (ISPM no 09).

In the 2021-2022 fiscal year (April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022), the CFIA conducted surveys for the plant pests listed below.

Survey Results for Forest Pests (April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022)

Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis)

Background: The Asian longhorned beetle (ALHB) is an invasive insect that attacks and kills a wide variety of deciduous tree species. This beetle was detected for the first time in Canada in September of 2003. An eradication program was implemented and in 2020, the pest was declared eradicated from Canada based on 5 years of negative survey data in accordance with international phytosanitary standards. Given the constant threat this pest poses to Canada, ongoing National surveillance activities are designed to ensure a high probability of detection in high risk areas.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (369)
AB (90)
SK (11)
MB (40)
ON (623)
QC (298)
NB (86)
NS (88)
PE (28)
NL (29)
Visual inspection No detections Canada is considered free from Asian longhorned beetle.

Emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis)

Background: The emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in Canada in Windsor, Ontario in July 2002. Since the initial detection, this species has been found in Winnipeg, Manitoba, and parts of Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The primary goal of this survey is to determine whether EAB is present in areas where it is not known to occur in order to provide information in support of regulatory decisions.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (27)
AB (37)
SK (80)
MB (37)
ON (88)
QC (24)
NB (38)
NS (103)
PE (21)
NL (7)
Visual inspection and traps No detections outside the current infested areas. Regulated areas remain unchanged. The emerald ash borer is present in Winnipeg (MB), and in parts of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

Invasive Alien Forest Insects

Background: The invasive alien species (IAS) surveys of forest insects are pathway-based surveys designed to detect a broad range of wood borers and bark beetles using semiochemical-baited black, multiple funnel traps. Since 2015, traps have been baited with either the general longhorn lure (fuscumol, fuscumol acetate, ultra-high release ethanol) or the pine sawyer lure (monochamol, ipsenol, alpha-pinene and ethanol). In 2018, regional offices in province of Quebec participated in a pilot project whereby green multiple funnel traps are set in tree canopies to target wood boring insects that preferentially attack the upper portions of a tree. In 2021, all areas in Canada are implementing canopy traps as well as standard ground-level traps. The surveys focus on urban areas where the risk of invasive alien insects moved with international wood packaging and dunnage is greatest. The primary goal of these surveys is to detect new introductions of non-indigenous species not known to be present in Canada. The IAS forest pest trapping survey, in addition to providing an early warning of the presence of potentially invasive pests in Canada, also provides valuable information on the diversity of Canada's insect fauna.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (20)
AB (1)
ON (25)
QC (24)
NB (4)
NS (11)
NL (3)
Traps No regulated pests or pests of quarantine significance were detected outside of their known range. From 2016 to 2020, this survey detected at least one new provincial or Canadian record, none of which were of quarantine significance. 2021 represents the 1st time in 6 years this survey has not produced a new record.

Spongy Moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and AGM (Lymantria dispar asiatica or Lymantria dispar japonica)

Background: The Spongy moth, formerly known as the European gypsy moth, is established in Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and in Prince Edward Island. Pheromone-based monitoring surveys are conducted annually in non-regulated areas of Canada. Surveys are also conducted to verify eradication of the insect in areas where eradication programs have been undertaken.

AGM, formerly known as Asian Gypsy Moth, has been introduced into North America on several occasions, but eradication programs have prevented populations from establishing. This survey is being conducted in support of CFIA policy directive D-95-03: "Plant protection policy for marine vessels arriving in Canada from areas regulated for AGM (Lymantria dispar, Lymantria albescens, Lymantria postalba, Lymantria umbrosa)". AGM is defined for regulatory purposes as those subspecies of Lymantria dispar in which the females are capable of sustained directed flight, whereas the Spongy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) females are not capable of flight

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results (adults caught in traps) Notes
BC (4839)
AB (979)
SK (609)
MB (499)
ON (159)
QC (41)
NB (10)
NS (20)
PE (5)
NL (322)

BC: Abbotsford (1), Barkerville (5), Bowser (4), Burnaby (19), Canoe (1), Chilliwack (9), Colwood (2), Comox (1), Coquitlam (10), Courtenay (12), Delta (2), Denman Island (1), Duncan (1), Esquimalt (2), Gabriola Island (1), Harrison Mills (1), Lake Cowichan (10), Langley (4), Langley (AMG) (2) Lantzville (7), Madeira Park (3), Maple Ridge (1), Mission (8), Nanaimo (2), Nanoose Bay (13), North Vancouver (1), Oak Bay (1), Parksville (1), Penticton (1), Port Alberni (4), Prince George (1), Qualicum Beach (2), Quesnel (2), Revelstoke (1), Saanich (1), Saltspring Island (6), Sechelt (1), Sicamous (2), Sproat Lake (1), Squamish (1), Surrey (11), Victoria (15), West Vancouver (2), Youbou (7)

AB: Calgary (11), Calmar (3), Edmonton (2), Jasper National Park (2)

SK: Grenfell (1), Meadow Lake (1), Regina (1), Saskatoon (1), Wolseley (1)

MB: Falcon Lake (1), Portage La Prairie (1), Sunnyside (1), Winnipeg (4)

ON: Cochrane District (137), Dubreuilville (10), Marathon (2), Neebing (74), Nipigon (2), Red Rock (6), Rossport (9), Schreiber (3), Shuniah (2), Slate River Valley (2), Thunder Bay (154), Thunder Bay District (219), Wawa (12), White River (7)

NL: Glenwood (1), Grand Falls-windsor (9), Salmonier Line (1), St. John's (3)

Spongy moth was detected in BC at a record number of sites. The high numbers are believed to be the result of vehicle movement from Eastern Canada where this pest is currently at outbreak levels. Eradication is planned for sites that appear to be established. Two moths of the flight capable AGM were found in Langley and eradication aerial sprays were conducted after this detection. All other traps were negative for AGM including traps set in Spongy regulated areas of ON, QC, NB, PE, & NS.

AB had a significant number of moth detections in the city of Calgary.

Brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum)

Background: The brown spruce longhorn beetle (BSLB), Tetropium fuscum, an introduced wood boring pest, is native to north and central Europe and Japan, where it uses stressed and dying conifers as hosts, most notably Norway spruce (Picea abies). All species of spruce in Canada are at risk. In 1999, the beetle was detected in Point Pleasant Park, Halifax, Nova Scotia, and confirmed to have been present since at least 1990. BSLB is considered to be a pest of quarantine significance in Canada and is regulated under the Plant Protection Act by the CFIA. The entire province of Nova Scotia is regulated for this pest.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
QC (33)
NB (213)
PE (39)
NL (19)
Traps No detections outside the current infested area The infested area for BSLB remains unchanged

Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae)

Background: Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is a destructive pest of susceptible species of hemlock (Tsuga spp.) that is native to India, Japan, Taiwan, China and western North America. HWA was first reported in North America in British Columbia in 1919, and can now be found in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California. HWA was first identified in the eastern United States in 1951. Since this time it has steadily spread and is now reported from 21 eastern states. In the eastern U.S., HWA has resulted in significant mortality of both eastern hemlock, (T. canadensis) and Carolina hemlock, (T. caroliniana). HWA threatens the existence of these two species in many locations

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
ON (84)
QC (27)
NB (12)
NS (87)
PE (16)
Visual inspection

ON: the pest was detected in Fort Erie.

NS: HWA was detected in Kings and Lunenburg counties

Infested Places Order amended to reflect new detections.

Oak wilt (Bretziella fagacearum)

Background: Oak wilt (Bretziella fagacearum) is a vascular wilt disease that is capable of killing trees in a single season. It was first recognized as an important forest pest in 1944 in Wisconsin and is now known to occur in 23 states within the U.S. In 2016, oak wilt was confirmed on Belle Isle (Michigan), in the middle of the Detroit River, less than 600 meters from Windsor, Ontario. This disease is not known to occur in Canada. Oak wilt is spread from diseased to healthy trees through root grafting, and by oak bark beetles and sap beetles. All oak species are susceptible to oak wilt, but red oaks are more frequently infected and can die quite quickly. The primary goal of this visual survey is early detection of the pest in areas where it is not known to occur.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
ON (57)
QC (16)
NB (2)
NS (4)
Visual inspection Oak wilt was not detected Canada is considered to be free from Oak wilt.

Survey Results for Horticultural Pests (April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022)

Ramorum blight (Phytophthora ramorum)

Background: Since 2003, Ramorum blight has been detected in a number of retail/wholesale nurseries in the southern coastal area of British Columbia. The primary goal of this survey is to provide information on the national status of ramorum blight in Canadian nurseries. More specifically, monitoring of ramorum blight is required to support eradication programs and detect new infestations.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (28)
ON (23)
QC (2)
Visual inspection BC: Ramorum blight was detected at one nursery Regulatory measures have been implemented at the infested nursery and eradication protocols were initiated.

Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta)

Background: The oriental fruit moth (OFM) is native to China and Korea. It was first detected in Ontario in 1925. It was intercepted and eradicated in 1957 in British Columbia and annual surveys since that time have been negative for this pest. The oriental fruit moth likely spreads to other countries in cocoons on dormant trees or in infested fruit. The principal host is Prunus spp. This survey is done to confirm the pest-free status of British Columbia for export purposes.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (163) Traps No detections of OFM BC is considered to be free from OFM

Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)

Background: The Japanese beetle has been present in Canada since 1939. This species of beetle affects more than 300 plant species, including many economically important plants such as fruit trees, ornamental shrubs and roses, field crops, turf grasses, and sod. In 2017, Japanese beetle was detected in Vancouver and a multi-collaborator eradication program has been ongoing since 2018. The trapping efforts in 2018 resulted in 8,276 beetles being caught. This number went down to 1,157 beetles in 2019 and 214 beetles in 2020. In 2021, only 79 beetles were caught but more than half of these detections occurred outside the regulated area.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results (adults caught in traps) Notes
BC (2790)
NL (82)
Traps BC: Japanese beetle was detected in Vancouver (73), Burnaby (5) and Port Coquitlam (1) We continue to support our collaborators in their effort to eradicate the pest. Trapping efforts will be increased in Vancouver and around new satellite infestations.

Blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)

Background: The blueberry maggot is an indigenous pest of commercially grown lowbush and highbush blueberries in the Canadian Maritime Provinces. It is currently found in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and parts of Ontario and Quebec. It is not found in Newfoundland & Labrador or in western Canada.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (23)
ON (18)
QC (5)
NL (29)
Traps No new detections outside the known infested areas. Regulated areas remain unchanged.

Apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)

Background: Apple maggot (AM) is an indigenous pest of apples in Canada. The BC Interior is the last major apple growing area of North America free from this pest. The objective of this survey is the early detection of apple maggot in the pest-free area of the BC Interior. This survey is being conducted in support of policies and programs related to CFIA Policy Directive D-00-07: "Import and domestic phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction and spread of apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh))". In 2015, a single female AM was detected in West Kelowna and in 2016 another single female was detected in the city of Kelowna. Despite increased surveillance from 2016 to 2019 apple maggot has not been detected since 2016.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (435) Traps No detections The BC Pest Free Area in the interior of British Columbia is considered free from apple maggot

Tobacco blue mold (Peronospora hyoscyami f.sp. tabacina)

Background: Tobacco blue mold (TBM) is a serious disease of solanaceous plants including tobacco, peppers, tomato and eggplant. TBM is only reported from Eastern Canada, although there was one report of the disease in Washington State in the 1950's. This pathogen is not known to overwinter in Canada but may be blown in as spores from the South Eastern US

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (3) Visual inspection No detections  

Plum pox virus

Background: Plum pox virus (PPV) is a serious plant disease that affects many stone fruit species within the genus Prunus, including peaches, nectarines, plums, apricots, almonds and some ornamental varieties. Although PPV does not kill trees, it reduces the marketability of the fruit, causes early fruit drop in infected trees and drastically reduces fruit yields. Plum Pox Virus is present in the Niagara area.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
ON (168) Leaf sampling No detections A total of 150 residential properties and 18 orchard properties were visited.

Survey Results for Potato Pests (April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022)

Potato wart (Synchytrium endobioticum)

Background: Potato wart disease, also known as potato canker, is caused by Synchytrium endobioticum, a soil-borne fungus. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the only cultivated host. Synchytrium endobioticum attacks the growing points on the potato plant, such as eyes, buds and stolon tips. The fungus can remain dormant in the soil for several years or more as resting spores. In Canada, potato wart is present in Prince Edward Island and in Newfoundland and Labrador. Soil sampling activities are conducted to detect PW outside its known distribution.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (30)
AB (308)
SK (62)
MB (158)
ON (111)
QC (200)
NB (700)
NS (66)
PE (4975)
NL (172)
Soil testing PEI: As part of an ongoing investigation, PW presence was confirmed in 2 fields in PEI. CFIA implemented regulatory measures to prevent potential spread.

Survey Results for the Invasive Alien Species Domestic Plant Health Program (IASDP) (April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022)

Invasive plant survey: Seed and grain handling facilities

Background: The introduction of the Invasive Alien Species program within CFIA has increased efforts to regulate many plants as pests in the same way that insects and diseases are regulated. A number of additional plants have been added to the Federal Noxious Weeds list under the Seeds Act that are now being considered for inclusion in the list of pests regulated under the Plant Protection Act. One of the major pathways of introduction of these invasive alien plants into Canada is through contaminated lots of imported seed and grain. The main objectives of this survey are to detect new populations of the target plant species and to provide information in support of the development of regulatory policies on invasive alien plants.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
BC (5)
AB (2)
SK (9)
MB (10)
ON (31)
QC (9)
NB (4)
NS (1)
PE (1)
Visual inspection QC: Woolly cupgrass Eriochloa villosa was detected in Varennes and in Mirabel. The regulatory approach for Woolly cupgrass is currently under review.

Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

Background: Kudzu is a climbing, semi-woody, perennial vine. It is a serious weed that can dominate landscapes, altering nutrient cycling and biodiversity as well as impacting the productivity of various industries (agriculture and forestry). Furthermore, the considerable tuberous root system makes control and eradication of this species very difficult. A 0.5 hectare population was observed in 2009 in Essex County, Ontario on the north shore of Lake Erie between Kingsville and Leamington (Waldron and Larson 2012). Eradication measures are in place and the population is being monitored on an ongoing basis. The main objective of this survey is early detection of kudzu in areas where it is not known to occur, focusing primarily on areas surrounding the only known population located in southern Ontario.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
ON (4) Visual inspection No new detections Eradication efforts are ongoing.

Invasive plant survey: Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum)

Background: Japanese stiltgrass is an invasive plant found in a variety of habitats, including forests, wetlands and disturbed areas. This plant's prolific seed production and rapid growth helps it dominate entire habitats, edging out native vegetation. As it spreads, Japanese stiltgrass displaces nesting sites for birds and other wildlife. Economically, Japanese stiltgrass may also cost producers due to control costs and productivity losses. Native to Asia, this plant has been introduced into the United States and is found in Ohio, Pennsylvania and along the US Atlantic coast. It was detected at three locations in Ontario: in the Niagara Peninsula and Elgin County in 2020 and in southwest Middlesex County in 2021. It has not been found in any other locations in Canada.

Provinces surveyed (number of sites) Type of Survey Results Notes
ON (10) Visual inspection Detected at one site in southwest Middlesex County The CFIA is working with collaborators on the management of Japanese stiltgrass in Ontario.

Other pests of concern

Box tree moth (Cydalima perspectalis)

The CFIA has been leading monitoring efforts to determine the distribution of box tree moth (BTM), working with community scientists and collaborators to deploy traps across Canada. A total of 663 traps were placed in 2021 under the collaborative surveillance program, confirming an expansion of the distribution of BTM to areas neighbouring the infested zones adjacent to Lake Ontario, with isolated populations confirmed in Cookstown, Georgetown, Waterloo region, Milton, Mississauga, Burlington, Hamilton, Grimsby, Vineland, and North Pelham.

Carnation tortrix (Cacoecimorpha pronubana)

This pest is native to Northern Africa and widely distributed across Western Europe to Asia Minor. It was introduced into North America, where it is present in the Pacific Northwest. In May 2018 it was detected flying in Port Coquitlam, BC, the 1st record in British Columbia. In 2021 it was reported from a nursery from the Fraser Valley and confirmed in follow-up pheromone based survey. It is a highly polyphagous pest feeding on strawberries, grapevines, pears, stone fruits, roses and many more. This insect is currently regulated in Canada but is undergoing a review of its regulatory status due to no reports of significant impacts.

Northern giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia)

In October 2021, an adult specimen of the Northern giant hornet was found inside a Japanese beetle trap in Langley, British Columbia. The site where the detection occurred is located close to the USA-Canada border and in proximity to the area where multiple detections of the hornet were made in previous years. This is the only detection of the hornet in Canada in 2021 and the first since 2019.

Public inquiries

Every year we follow up on observations submitted by members of the public  who are concerned about  potential invasive alien species in April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022 we received 42 such requests, including some significant reports that helped inform regulatory decisions for the Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) and Box tree moth (Cydalima pespectalis) in Ontario.

These observations highlight the important role the public can play in the early detection of pests of potential significance to Canada.

Research projects and collaboration

The CFIA's Plant Health Surveillance Unit is also dedicated to preventative science and research that supports risk mitigation and early detection. Research projects supported by the PHSU in April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2022 include:

Finally, the unit is committed to building and maintaining collaboration and networks through innovative education, outreach and awareness strategies that strengthen networks and build surveillance capacity.

The CFIA has worked closely with its collaborators, including provinces and municipalities to expand the reach of surveillance efforts for spongy moth, brown spruce longhorn beetle and emerald ash borer. There were a total of 530 survey sites delivered by collaborators. Furthermore, provincial efforts in Ontario have supported discussions on European cherry fruit fly with traps deployed at 13 locations in southwestern Ontario with no new detections.  Collaboration with the Invasive Species Centre, Ontario, Parks Canada Agency and the Canadian Council on Invasive Species have continued and several Memorandums of Understanding for data sharing with provinces have been established. The unit regularly holds training and outreach events with the public and stakeholders, in addition to providing internal training for CFIA inspectors. Please contact the Plant Health Surveillance Unit if you or your organization would like to receive support for training or public outreach events.

For any questions regarding CFIA's plant health surveys, please contact the Plant Health Surveillance Unit at

Date modified: