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Industry Questions and Answers

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Where is Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle (BSLB) established?

The regulated area for BSLB currently includes the entire Province of Nova Scotia and individual sites in New Brunswick under Notices of Prohibition of Movement. It has not been detected anywhere else in North America.

What measures are in place to control BSLB?

Regulated areas are created to slow or prevent the spread of pests (including diseases) that could adversely affect humans, animals or plant life. Generally, restrictions or prohibitions are placed on areas where the pest is present or suspected to occur. One way to establish a regulated area is through a Ministerial Order. To help prevent the spread of the BSLB a Ministerial Order was issued in October 2000 and was revised in 2007, 2013, and 2015 The order restricts the movement of spruce round logs, and firewood out of the regulated area so as to prevent the spread of BSLB to areas in Canada not infested by the beetle.

In May 2007, based on emerging scientific and surveillance information, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) expanded the existing infested area and made requirements less restrictive than the original Ministerial Order for processing and controlling movement. In May 2013, based on additional scientific justification, the CFIA removed spruce bark and wood-chips from the list of regulated articles. In April 2015, the regulated area was expanded to include the entire province of Nova Scotia to reduce regulatory burden, increase awareness of the regulated areas, and maximize compliance with movement restrictions.

Why is the CFIA making changes to the regulation of BSLB?

The regulated area supports the CFIA's approach of slowing the spread of BSLB. This approach is consistent with domestic and international pest management standards and is being pursued in order to better protect other Maritime forests and those in other areas of Canada from this invasive insect.

What will this change mean for related industries?

This approach allows for more open regional trade while longer term measures are being considered.

Does CFIA's current approach incorporate industry concerns?

These measures support a common goal to contain BSLB, while science and surveillance work is carried out in order to develop a better understanding of this pest. The CFIA continues to engage with federal, provincial, and industry partners to develop a long-term management strategy.

What is the CFIA doing to manage BSLB? Does the current approach aim to eradicate or simply contain the spread of BSLB?

In order to protect non-infested areas in Canada, the CFIA restricts the movement of spruce logs and firewood from areas where BSLB has been detected. This prevents the human assisted movement of BSLB beyond the regulated areas.

BSLB has been found throughout Nova Scotia and in New Brunswick. It has not been detected anywhere else in North America.

The CFIA has never pursued an eradication strategy against BSLB, opting to slow and contain its spread. The CFIA works collaboratively with federal, provincial and industry partners to manage this pest.

What has been the impact of BSLB so far in Canada?

The Government of Canada is committed to protecting Canada's plant resource base from pests and diseases. Although BSLB was initially thought to be a damaging pest of all spruce forests, recent science indicates it spreads relatively slowly, and may only impact trees that are already stressed from other factors.

At this time, BSLB is not considered to have had a significant impact on spruce populations.

A strong strategy for managing forest health is important for dealing with pests such as BSLB. Scientific research continues into ways to manage infested areas and lower the risk of further spread.

The public can play a key part in helping to control the spread of wood-borne pests by not moving potentially infested materials such as firewood (of any species) or spruce materials such as logs, branches, or yard waste containing spruce.

Where is the beetle located on the spruce tree?

The BSLB eggs are found in pairs in well concealed locations under the bark. The larvae bore into the inner bark and excavate further into the tree.

BSLB can exist in firewood. By not moving firewood, the spread of BSLB is limited.

How effective have the CFIA's efforts been to manage the BSLB since the species was first found in Canada?

The CFIA's efforts have been effective. BSLB is strictly established in Nova Scotia. Aside from two detections in New Brunswick, it has not been detected anywhere else in North America.

Since its detection in Canada, BSLB has moved relatively slowly, and most of its movement can be attributed to storms such as Hurricane Juan in 2003, and artificial spread by human assisted activities, such as moving spruce products and firewood. Therefore, the CFIA's efforts are focused on preventing artificial spread. Success in this area depends on all stakeholders ensuring that they follow policies and do not move articles regulated by the CFIA outside of the regulated areas, and avoid risks that may be presented by moving any firewood out of its local area.

What is a Movement Certificate?

A Movement Certificate, issued by the CFIA, allows regulated materials to be moved outside of the infested area under specific conditions. These conditions facilitate the transport and processing of these materials while minimizing the potential spread of BSLB. For more information or to obtain a Movement Certificate contact your local CFIA BSLB office by phone (1-877-868-0662 or 902-426-4667) or contact your local CFIA office.

Can forest product facilities outside the infested area receive and process regulated materials from within the infested area?

Yes. Forest product facilities outside the regulated area can be authorized to process regulated articles originating from the regulated area, once their site specific processes for the mitigation of BSLB risks have been approved by the CFIA.

The CFIA developed the Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle Risk Mitigation Program for participants from the forest products industry. The program reduces the risk of spreading BSLB by setting out requirements for moving and processing spruce roundwood, and firewood under a CFIA Movement Certificate. The program is performance-based where participants comply with the requirements through a site-specific process, documented using an approved site-specific plan. The requirements adopt forest product industry practices and will help producers move their product to market.

Will the CFIA continue to order trees destroyed in generally infested areas?

There will be no further tree removals except for research purposes, and for specific site management plans outside the province of Nova Scotia. CFIA's emphasis will be on continued support of research, surveillance, effective communications and enforcement activities.

If you are not in an area regulated for BSLB and suspect signs of infestation, within Nova Scotia, please contact the CFIA's BSLB Office toll-free at 1-877-868-0662 or call 902-426-4667. Outside of Nova Scotia, please contact your local CFIA office.

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