D-10-01: General phytosanitary requirements for fresh pepper and tomato fruit imported from the world
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Effective date: October 19, 2022
This directive outlines the phytosanitary requirements for fresh pepper and tomato fruit imported into Canada.
The following changes have been made as part of this revision:
- Republic of Korea is now approved to export fresh tomato fruit to Canada under a systems approach
- additional declarations for regulated articles originating from an infested country have been updated
- the list of countries approved to export fresh pepper and tomato fruit to Canada has been updated to reflect recent trade history
- various editorial changes to improve the clarity of the text
This document supersedes all previous versions of directive D-10-01.
On this page
- 1.0 Legislative authority
- 2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms
- 3.0 Introduction
- 4.0 Scope
- 5.0 Import requirements
- 5.1 General import requirements
- 5.2 Fresh pepper and tomato fruit from new origins
- 5.3 Countries where Thaumatotibia leucotreta or Tuta absoluta are absent
- 5.4 Countries where Thaumatotibia leucotreta or Tuta absoluta are present
- 6.0 Non-compliance
- 7.0 References
- Appendix 1: Summary of phytosanitary requirements for fresh pepper and tomato fruit imported from the world
- Appendix 2: Minimum requirements for a systems approach for the export to Canada of tomato fruit from countries where Tuta absoluta is present
1.0 Legislative authority
- Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c.22
- Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
- Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)
2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms
Definitions of terms used in this document can be found in the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 5: Glossary of phytosanitary terms or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) Plant Health glossary of terms.
Imported fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruit is regulated by the CFIA to prevent the introduction and spread of plant pests that can cause significant economic and environmental damage to the Canadian plant resource base including agriculture, forestry and the environment.
2 insect pests, Thaumatotibia leucotreta in association with fresh pepper fruit, and Tuta absoluta in association with fresh tomato fruit, are of particular concern. Specific phytosanitary requirements targeting those pests, as well as general phytosanitary requirements for fresh pepper and tomato fruit imported from the world are presented.
4.1 Regulated pests
|Scientific name||Common name|
|Thaumatotibia leucotreta Meyrick||False codling moth|
|Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) also referred to by some sources as Phthorimaea absoluta Meyrick, 1917||Tomato leaf miner, South American tomato moth|
The list of pests regulated by Canada does not include all organisms that represent a plant health risk to Canada. When a new pest is found on or in association with plants or plant products, it will be categorized and, when appropriate, added to the list. See the List of pests regulated by Canada for more information.
If an importer becomes aware of the presence of a thing that they suspect to be a pest, the person shall immediately notify the CFIA, as described in section 5 of the Plant Protection Act.
4.2 Regulated articles
- Capsicum spp., fresh pepper fruit
- Solanum lycopersicum, (syn. Lycopersicon esculentum), fresh tomato fruit
4.3 Articles exempt
Pepper and tomato fruit that have been processed in a manner that mitigates pest risk (for example, frozen, canned, dried, cooked, pureed, fermented).
4.4 Regulated areas
All countries except the United States and Mexico.
5.0 Import requirements
5.1 General import requirements
Country-specific import requirements may be obtained by consulting CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS).
See appendix 1 for a list of countries approved to export fresh pepper or tomato fruit to Canada.
Consignments must be free of soil, regulated pests, leaves, branches, and plant debris.
Containers must be new or cleaned in a manner that mitigates risks from regulated plant pests, and removes organic matter, soil and/or soil-related matter.
Fresh pepper and tomato fruit from a foreign country entering Canada via a third country must meet the same phytosanitary requirements as consignments being imported directly into Canada from the country of origin. Consignments of plant products entering Canada are subject to inspection by the CFIA.
Note: importing tomato and pepper fruit for re-packing may constitute a high risk activity that could negatively impact Canadian-grown products. Packing facilities adjacent to a place of production or located in a tomato or pepper production area should implement best management practices to prevent potential cross-infestation of Canadian crops by pests associated with foreign product.
5.2 Fresh pepper and tomato fruit from new origins
Canada requires a pest risk analysis prior to approving the importation of fresh pepper and tomato fruit from a new country of origin.
For more information on the process used by the CFIA to evaluate the pest risk associated with a commodity, see Pest Risk Analysis: How we evaluate fruits, vegetables and plants from new countries of origin.
5.3 Countries where Thaumatotibia leucotreta or Tuta absoluta are absent
Countries approved to export to Canada (appendix 1), and where T. leucotreta or T. absoluta are absent, must notify the CFIA should the pest status of the country change.
A phytosanitary certificate is required. An additional declaration is not required.
5.4 Countries where Thaumatotibia leucotreta or Tuta absoluta are present
Countries approved to export to Canada, and where T. leucotreta or T. absoluta are present, must meet 1 of the following import requirements:
- CFIA-recognized pest-free area (section 5.4.1)
- CFIA-accepted systems approach (section 5.4.2)
- CFIA-approved treatment (section 5.4.3)
A phytosanitary certificate with corresponding additional declaration is required.
Appendix 1 provides a list of countries approved to export fresh pepper and tomato fruit to Canada, the phytosanitary certification options they are approved to use and the corresponding additional declarations that must be included on the phytosanitary certificate.
5.4.1 CFIA-recognized pest-free area
Fresh tomato and pepper fruit originating from countries where T. leucotreta or T. absoluta are present may be certified for export to Canada if produced in a CFIA-recognized pest-free area.
The pest-free area must be established and administrated under the authority of the National Plant Protection Organization of the country of origin, in accordance with the criteria for establishing freedom from pests found in International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 4: Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas. Additionally, consignments from a pest-free area transiting to a packinghouse or a port through an area not known to be free of regulated pests must be covered with an insect-proof mesh, screen or plastic tarpaulin or otherwise safeguarded from infestation by T. leucotreta or T. absoluta.
The CFIA will review the protocols to establish and maintain pest freedom submitted by the exporting country's NPPO as per International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 29: Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence. The NPPO must demonstrate to the CFIA that the conditions of ISPM 4 are met.
5.4.2 CFIA-accepted systems approach
Fresh pepper and tomato fruit originating from countries where T. leucotreta or T. absoluta are present may be certified for export to Canada if produced in accordance with a CFIA-accepted systems approach. The systems approach must conform to international guidelines as per International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management.
As the NPPO of the importing country, the CFIA is responsible for setting and communicating technically justified phytosanitary import requirements to be addressed by the systems approach.
Appendix 2 provides the minimum requirements of a systems approach for the export of fresh tomato fruit from countries where T. absoluta is present. Tomato fruit produced and prepared for export to Canada under a systems approach must be imported without vines, stems, or calyces.
If the NPPO of the exporting country wishes to employ a systems approach, they must submit a proposal to the CFIA. The NPPO must demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed provisions. They must approve and oversee the places of production or production sites that use the integrated measures.
The use of a systems approach offers a preventative risk management alternative to mandatory phytosanitary treatment. It is useful in situations where traditional phytosanitary inspection and certification may be considered ineffective or inefficient.
5.4.3 CFIA-approved treatment
Fresh pepper and tomato fruit may be treated for regulated pests using CFIA-approved products and methods. Refer to Treatment schedules for horticulture commodities for article and pest-specific treatments. Upon request, proposals for alternative treatments will be evaluated for effectiveness by the CFIA.
Note: as a signatory to the Montreal protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer, Canada is phasing out the use of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. Exporting countries are encouraged to submit data supporting the efficacy of alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation to the CFIA for review.
Imported articles may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet requirements when they reach their first point of arrival in Canada. Articles infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada. Those articles will be ordered removed from the country or destroyed. Infested articles may be ordered treated prior to disposal or removal to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the articles, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken. The CFIA will advise the NPPO of the country of origin or re-export of non-compliance as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.
The discovery of quarantine pests or other non-compliance during inspection in Canada may result in suspension of the importation of the commodity from that country. Consultation with the CFIA and remedial action at origin before shipping can resume may be required.
The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees, please contact your local CFIA office or visit the CFIA's Fees Notice website.
7.2 Supporting documents
- Automated Import Reference System (AIRS)
- D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action
- International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 4: Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas International Plant Protection Convention, 1995
- International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management International Plant Protection Convention, 2002
- International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 29: Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence International Plant Protection Convention, 2007
- Pest risk analysis: How we evaluate fruits, vegetables and plants from new countries of origin.
- Treatment schedules for horticulture commodities
Appendix 1: Summary of phytosanitary requirements for fresh pepper and tomato fruit imported from the world
See Appendix 1: Summary of phytosanitary requirements for fresh pepper and tomato fruit imported from the world
Appendix 2: Minimum requirements for a systems approach for the export to Canada of tomato fruit from countries where Tuta absoluta is present
Fresh tomato fruit from approved countries where Tuta absoluta is present may be imported into Canada provided that the foreign country's NPPO and the CFIA have agreed to a systems approach program intended to mitigate the risk of introducing this pest to Canada.
Foreign NPPOs are required to register production sites and packing facilities and verify that the requirements outlined in this appendix are met. Only those facilities meeting these requirements may be registered. Only those consignments meeting these requirements may be certified for export to Canada under a systems approach. International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management, should serve as guidance in implementing the systems approach for the export of tomato fruit.
The systems approach must include all of the following:
- tomato fruit must be imported as commercial consignments only
- tomato fruit must be imported without vines, stems, or calyces
- tomato fruit must be grown in pest exclusionary structures (PES), for example, greenhouses or screen houses, that are registered with the NPPO of the country of origin
- the PES must be equipped with double self-closing doors, and all vents or openings in the PES (other than the double closing doors) must be covered with 1.6 mm or smaller screening to prevent the entry of quarantine pests into the PES
- the PES must be equipped with pheromone baited traps for T. absoluta at a minimum rate of 2 traps per hectare and with no fewer than 2 traps per PES
- all traps must be placed at least 2 months prior to harvest, maintained throughout the growing season, and monitored and serviced weekly
- the registered PES must be inspected by the NPPO or its designee throughout the growing season for evidence of T. absoluta
- the NPPO must maintain trapping records of T. absoluta throughout the growing season for CFIA review
- if, within 30 days of harvest, 2 T. absoluta individuals are captured inside the PES or a single T. absoluta individual is found inside the fruit or in a consignment, then shipments from the PES will be suspended until CFIA and the NPPO determine that risk mitigation is achieved
- the NPPO must maintain a CFIA-approved quality control program to monitor or audit the program
- a list of approved PES should be provided to CFIA, and the NPPO must notify CFIA when a PES is removed or added to the program
- CFIA may conduct periodic site visits to monitor the program
- after harvest, tomato fruit must be safeguarded by an insect-proof mesh, size 1.6 mm or smaller screen, or plastic tarpaulin while in transit from the PES to the packinghouse and while awaiting packing
- tomato fruit must be packed within 24 hours of harvest in a pest-exclusionary packinghouse
- when the packinghouse processes tomato fruit for export to Canada, it must accept only tomato fruit from a registered PES
- for transit to Canada, tomato fruit must be packed in insect-proof cartons or containers or covered with insect-proof 1.6 mm mesh or plastic tarpaulin
- these safeguards must remain intact until arrival in Canada or the consignment may be refused entry
- each consignment of tomato fruit must be accompanied by either a phytosanitary certificate, or a re-export phytosanitary certificate accompanied by a copy of the phytosanitary certificate, bearing the appropriate additional declaration as described in appendix 1
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