Current investigation into potato wart in PEI
Industry guidance on inspection requirements for processing, table stock and seed potatoes leaving Prince Edward Island (PEI)
Following the potato wart Ministerial Order, industry in PEI is required to follow different inspection requirements for seed, processing and table stock potatoes originating from PEI.
On this page
- Potato wart in PEI: findings in 2021
- Actions to prevent the spread of potato wart
- Investigation status
- The Ministerial Order
- Trade has resumed to the United States (U.S.)
- The Government of Canada worked hard to resolve this situation
- The history of potato wart in PEI
- Public enquiries
Potato wart in PEI: Findings in 2021
On October 1, 2021, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA) Charlottetown Laboratory confirmed potato wart after a suspect potato was submitted to the lab by a grower. On October 14, 2021, another finding was confirmed at a second farm, based on potatoes submitted to the lab.
Actions to prevent the spread of potato wart
On November 2, 2021, the movement of seed potatoes from PEI to the United States was suspended by the CFIA, as a result of the 2 October findings and the scope of the investigations.
We also decided that stronger measures were necessary to prevent the spread of potato wart to the rest of Canada and abroad. On November 21, 2021, a Ministerial Order was put in place to address these risks. The Order restricts the movement of seed potatoes from PEI, both internationally and domestically. It also introduces new risk mitigation measures for PEI table stock and processing potatoes, as well as other regulated 'things' such as soil, sod, and farming equipment.
International Advisory Panel on potato wart in PEI
- An international advisory panel was created by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in collaboration with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Fruit and Vegetable Growers of Canada, the Canadian Potato Council, Prince Edward Island Potato Board and the PEI Department of Agriculture and Land.
The role of the Panel
- This panel of international experts were tasked with providing independent, expert science-based advice related to the pest status of potato wart in parts of Prince Edward Island (PEI). The panel brings international knowledge, expertise and lessons learned to Canada with the aim to help the CFIA and its stakeholders prevent further spread of potato wart.
- The role of the panel was advisory in nature. Findings, observations and recommendations will be taken into consideration and may help inform subsequent CFIA decisions.
- This approach of using an International Advisory Panel has been previously effective in obtaining independent expert advice related to the management of other plant pests in Canada, such as potato cyst nematode.
- The panel was made up of five international experts from New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Germany and the Netherlands with interest and experience in potato wart research, program design and implementation, and pest containment and control. They included:
- Dr. Wellcome Ho, Principal Scientist, Ministry for Primary Industries (New Zealand)
- Dr. Iain Kirkwood, Technical Manager, Potatoes New Zealand Inc. (New Zealand)
- Rodney Martin, Head of Potato Plant Health and Seed Potato Certification Inspectorate, Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) (Northern Ireland)
- Dr. Silke Steinmöller, Senior Scientist, JKI Institute for National and International Plant Health (Germany)
- Dr. Theo van der Lee, Senior Scientist Molecular Phytopathology, Wageningen University and Research (The Netherlands)
- The panel brings together significant technical expertise on issues such as the application of relevant international phytosanitary standards to address potato wart, or crops and diseases with similar characteristics.
The panel's report
The CFIA thanks all five members of the International Advisory Panel for their time and dedication in developing Recommendations of the International Advisory Panel on Potato Wart Disease management on Prince Edward Island 2022. This report presents details on the complexity of the current situation and extensive context for its recommendations. The full report should be read to understand the panel's recommendations.
While the report is advisory in nature and non-binding, it is one of many considerations that will help inform the CFIA's future decisions on potato wart management in Prince Edward Island (PEI). These decisions will be made in accordance with the CFIA's plant protection mandate through the administration and enforcement of Canada's Plant Protection Act and Regulations and the CFIA's role as Canada's National Plant Protection Organization under the International Plant Protection Convention.
The CFIA also thanks Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, the Fruit and Vegetable Growers of Canada, the Canadian Potato Council, the PEI Potato Board and the PEI Department of Agriculture and Land who collaborated with the CFIA to create the International Advisory Panel, including selecting panelists and developing terms of reference to guide its work. Effective management of potato wart requires all affected parties, including growers, industry, and provincial and federal governments, to work within their individual and joint areas of responsibility to mitigate the risks associated with this pest.
CFIA investigations into the recent 2021/2022 PEI potato wart findings follow the requirements of the Potato Wart Domestic Long Term Management Plan. The CFIA is working diligently to complete the investigations as quickly as possible. Given the scope and the number of associated fields, investigations will continue into 2023 until all samples are collected and analyzed.
To date, the CFIA has analyzed over 35,000 samples from the ongoing investigations. The CFIA will continue to focus attention on completing the remaining samples.
The CFIA will publish the next quarterly update in June 2023.
|Timeframe||Samples collected||Samples analyzed||Potato wart detections|
|October 7, 2021 to March 4, 2022||3,543||3,543||1|
|March 5, 2022 to June 30, 2022||17,163||5,327||0|
|July 1, 2022 to September 30, 2022||9,054||11,082||1|
|October 1, 2022 to December 31, 2022||14,935||8,812||1|
|January 1, 2023 to March 10, 2023||0||6,713||0|
Increasing capacity for investigation
While sampling is not possible during the winter months, work to analyze samples continues. The CFIA hired more staff to collect soil and test soil samples and, trained more of their employees to be able to work on soil testing. In addition, the CFIA retrofitted new lab space in PEI to have more space in which to conduct the testing.
As part of its efforts to accelerate this investigation, the CFIA is recruiting qualified laboratory technicians and soil samplers.
The Ministerial Order
The Minister put the Order in place to provide the CFIA with regulatory authorities to prevent the spread of potato wart within Canada. These requirements are critical to limiting the spread and maintaining confidence in our plant health system.
The Ministerial Order does not prohibit the export of products out of Canada. Importing requirements are defined by the importing countries, including the United States.
Trade has resumed to the United States (U.S.)
On November 22, 2021, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) advised U.S. border services to reject shipments of PEI potatoes. At this point, the CFIA was unable to certify potato shipments for export, in accordance with the Plant Protection Regulations, because they no longer met the importing country's requirements.
On April 1, 2022, the USDA-APHIS announced that imports of PEI potatoes for consumption can now resume to the U.S. with conditions. Field grown seed potatoes from PEI may not be exported to the U.S. at this time.
This decision follows several months of technical discussions between the CFIA and USDA-APHIS, through which the Agency shared scientific information and reports to support APHIS' risk assessment exercise to enable the resumption of trade.
- Statement from the Chief Plant Health Officer: Amended U.S. Federal Order on Potato Wart in Prince Edward Island
The Government of Canada worked hard to resolve this situation
The Government of Canada worked diligently to address concerns from the U.S. so this issue could be resolved as quickly as possible, including:
- dedicating more CFIA staff to this file and increasing capacity in several areas so they could provide scientific evidence required to assure the U.S. that PEI potatoes are safe for trade
- creating an Industry-Government Potato Working Group to develop strategies that mitigate impacts of potato wart on industry, and identify short and long-term solutions to these trade disruptions
- announcing up to $28 million in funding to help manage surplus potatoes
- completing the 2021 and 2022 national surveys for potato wart ahead of schedule and confirming no potato wart was detected in non-regulated seed potato growing areas of Canada, demonstrating the effective management of potato wart in our country
- continuing extensive engagement with the U.S. government at all levels to resolve this issue
- creating a Federal Ministerial Coordinating Committee on PEI Potatoes to further develop strategies to address the issue and minimize impacts of potato wart on the PEI potato sector
The history of potato wart in PEI
Potato wart was first found in a PEI field in 2000. It resulted in the closure of the U.S.–Canada border for all fresh PEI potatoes, including seed and table stock, for 6 months. The Potato Wart Domestic Long Term Management Plan was also put in place. The Plan outlines the mandatory minimum survey, testing, and surveillance activities required to mitigate the risk of spread of potato wart outside of the restricted areas in PEI.
Since the first finding, the CFIA has surveyed for potato wart annually in PEI. This includes surveying all fields used to produce potatoes in the province for the first 3 years after the initial finding. These surveys indicated that the pest was not widespread at that time.
If potato wart is detected, land controls are put in place on individual fields to restrict the movement of potatoes, plants, soil, and other articles that could result in the spread of potato wart outside of the regulated fields. The CFIA monitors approximately 1,000 fields a year for potato wart.
The CFIA laboratory in Charlottetown is responsible for confirming potato wart in samples submitted by CFIA staff and by growers. This facility is designed to prevent the spread of potato wart.
In 2003, the Potato Wart Compensation Regulations were enacted to compensate specific, confirmed losses due to treatment, prohibition, restriction or disposition related to potato wart. The regulations do not compensate for potential revenue loss that has yet to occur.
In 2015, the U.S. put in place a Federal Order that outlines specific mitigation measures required for the movement of table stock, bulk, unwashed and seed potatoes from PEI to the U.S. Since then, import requirements for seed potatoes include mandatory soil testing within 1 year of harvest. The mitigation measures for table stock potatoes grown from a field where potato wart is not known to occur include:
- brushing and washing to remove any soil
- packing in containers of 50 lbs or less, and
- phytosanitary inspection and certification
In 2021, the CFIA enhanced its National Surveillance Program with additional soil samples taken in every seed potato-producing region of Canada.
The science-based mitigation measures undertaken by the CFIA, along with the Potato Wart Management Plan, were designed to remove the risk pathways for potato wart to spread. This has allowed PEI to move hundreds of millions of dollars worth of potatoes off the island.
PEI is an important supplier of fresh potatoes to the domestic market with the bulk of the shipments going to:
- New Brunswick
- Nova Scotia
Public enquiries are welcome throughout the process. Find contact information for CFIA offices.
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