Guidance for the movement of plants, plant parts and soil leaving a Japanese beetle regulated area located within British Columbia
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On this page
- 1.0 Introduction
- 2.0 Regulated articles
- 3.0 Exempted articles
- 4.0 Movement requirements for regulated articles leaving a regulated area
- 4.1 Soil – regulated year-round
- 4.2 Site assessment – determining if soil requires disposal
- 4.3 Plants and plant parts with soil attached – regulated year-round
- 4.4 Plants and above-ground plant parts with no soil attached – regulated during the Japanese beetle flight period (from June 15 to October 15)
- 5.0 Disposal and Treatment options for regulated articles
- 5.1 Options for disposal and treatment of regulated articles staying within a regulated area (no movement certificate required)
- 5.2 Options for disposal and treatment of regulated articles outside of a regulated area (movement certificate required)
- 5.3 Transfer Station disposal of regulated articles (movement certificate may be required)
- 5.4 Regular or frequent movement of restricted articles from a regulated area to a site outside of the same regulated area
- 6.0 Additional measures for industry to help prevent the spread of Japanese beetle
- 7.0 Non-compliance with the movement requirements for Japanese beetle
- 8.0 Definitions
- Appendix 1 - Application form for a Site Assessment by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) for movement of soil out of a Japanese beetle Regulated Area
- Appendix 2 - Application for movement certification of regulated material for Japanese beetle under the Plant Protection Act and the Japanese Beetle Ministerial Order for the Cities of Burnaby and Vancouver, British Columbia
- Appendix 3 - Composting and heat treatment specifications for Japanese beetle regulated material in British Columbia
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has established regulated areas within the Province of British Columbia (BC) to prevent the spread of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica).
The CFIA is working with the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries (AFF), the Cities of Burnaby, Port Coquitlam and Vancouver, the Invasive Species Council of British Columbia (ISCBC), the British Columbia Landscape and Nursery Association (BCLNA), and other stakeholders, to restrict the movement of material (regulated articles) that could contribute to the spread of Japanese beetle.
Please visit the CFIA's Japanese beetle web page to stay informed of any changes to the regulated areas.
Anyone growing or working with plants, soil or plant waste in a regulated area should be aware of the full requirements described below. Municipal bylaws and provincial laws must still be followed.
- A coordinated response to eradicate Japanese Beetle in British Columbia
- D-96-15: Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the spread of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in Canada and the United States
- Japanese beetle Ministerial Order for the Cities of Burnaby and Vancouver, British Columbia
1.1 When to contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Contact the CFIA by calling: 604-292-5742 or by emailing: BCPF.Japanese.Beetle@inspection.gc.ca when the following applies:
- you require a movement certificate; OR
- you want to report a Japanese beetle sighting or signs of Japanese beetle feeding damage; OR
- you have a situation that is not covered on the CFIA's website or in this document; OR
- you want to report knocked down, damaged or vandalized Japanese beetle traps, like those shown in the picture below, which are used to detect beetles and gather important scientific data.
(see section 8.0 for definition of "movement certificate")
2.0 Regulated articles
Regulated articles are things that are infested or likely to be infested with Japanese beetle when originating from a regulated area. Regulated articles include things that may be a pathway for the movement of Japanese beetle eggs, larvae, pupae and/or adults. The list of regulated articles varies over the course of a year, depending on the life stage of Japanese beetle which may be present.
A CFIA movement certificate is required for the following articles before they can be moved out of a BC regulated area during the timeframe specified:
- soil (of any depth), year-round
- plants with soil, year-round
- plants and above-ground plant parts that are substantially free from soil, during the Japanese beetle flight period which takes place from June 15 to October 15 each year
(See section 8.0 for definition of "soil")
3.0 Exempted articles
Exempted articles are things that are unlikely to carry or be infested with live Japanese beetle (eggs, larvae, pupae and/or adults). These articles can move freely out of a BC regulated area and do not require a CFIA movement certificate.
Some examples of exempted articles include:
- gravel, aggregate, rocks, concrete, asphalt and silt, provided they are substantially free from soil.
- green plant waste that has been chipped or ground using a brush chipper or a horizontal grinder, and is substantially free from soil.
- branches, trunks, sticks and wood with no leaves attached, that are substantially free from soil.
- potted houseplants (non-commercial) which have been grown indoors within a regulated area, and have not been placed outdoors, or used as patio plants.
- below-ground plant root systems, such as: roots, dormant bulbs, tubers, corms, or rhizomes that are substantially free from soil.
- cut flowers and decorative branches which were commercially produced outside a regulated area, and were sold in florist shops, etc. within the regulated area.
- fresh fruits and vegetables for consumption
- commercially prepared and packaged (sealed) growing media (for example, soil and peat) produced outside a regulated area and sold within a regulated area.
- articles transiting through the regulated area without stopping within a regulated area.
The following articles are only exempted outside of the Japanese beetle flight period (June 15 to October 15):
- all plants and above-ground plant parts, including grass clippings that are substantially free from soil.
- potted plants, including ornamental grasses and nursery stock, that enter the regulated area on or after October 16 and leave a regulated area on or before June 14 of the following, consecutive year.
- potted plants, including nursery stock and ornamental grasses, which are kept exclusively in an indoor area within the regulated area during the Japanese beetle flight period.
(see section 8.0 for definitions of "silt", "substantially free from soil", "Japanese beetle flight period", and "outside of the Japanese beetle flight period")
Other exemptions may be considered on a case-by-case basis, at the discretion of the CFIA. Please contact the CFIA if you are unsure.
4.0 Movement Requirements for regulated articles leaving the regulated area
|Regulated Articles||Time of year||Examples||Possible
Japanese beetle life stage present
|Is a Movement Certificate Required?|
|Soil||Year round||Eggs, larvae, pupae and/or adult beetles||Yes|
|Plants and plant parts with soil attached||Year round||Potted plants, turfgrass, sod, ornamental grasses, raked plant debris with soil||Eggs, larvae, pupae and/or adult beetles||Yes|
|Plants and above-ground plant parts, that are substantially free from soil||June 15 - October 15||Grass clippings, pruning waste and branches with leaves attached||Adult beetles||Yes|
|Plants and above-ground plant parts, that are substantially free from soil||January 1 - June 14, October 16 - December 31||Grass clippings, pruning waste and branches with leaves attached||n/a||No|
4.1 Soil – regulated year-round
All forms of soil require a CFIA issued movement certificate to move outside of the regulated area.
The top 30 cm of soil must be treated or disposed of in accordance with CFIA specifications (for example, heat treatment or deep burial). Any sites that are unlikely to support Japanese beetle development may be eligible for a site assessment (see section 4.2).
If you are moving soil out of the regulated area in Burnaby or Vancouver, contact the CFIA prior to the start of work by email or phone 604-292-5742.
For any large quantity of soil which must be disposed of through deep burial at the Vancouver Landfill, please be advised that:
- a CFIA-issued Movement Certificate is required prior to movement of the soil; and
- it is your responsibility to make arrangements for deep burial; and
- the Vancouver Landfill requires advance notice to prepare for deep burial operations.
Please consult the Vancouver Landfill and Recycling Depot website for more information about municipal landfill requirements.
Soil that is deeper than 30 cm, and soil that is beneath an impermeable surface, such as: asphalt, cement or similar plant barrier, does not require specific treatment or deep burial, but still requires a CFIA movement certificate. Material that does not fit the definition of soil does not require treatment or deep burial, but still requires a movement certificate.
(see section 8.0 for definition of "soil")
4.2 Site assessment – determining if soil requires disposal
Any site, with soil, inside a regulated area, is eligible for a CFIA site assessment. Deep burial disposal requirements may be waived for sites inside a regulated area that are unlikely to support Japanese beetle development. To request a CFIA site assessment, please go to Appendix 1 and follow the instructions provided to complete and submit the site assessment application form.
4.3 Plants and plant parts with soil attached – regulated year-round
This category of regulated article includes items such as: green plant waste with soil, turfgrass, sod, ornamental grasses, annuals, perennials, bulbs in soil, shrubs, bedding plants and potted houseplants, as well as, patio plants grown outdoors.
Plants for planting with soil attached
Plants with soil from a regulated area, which are not destined for disposal within the regulated area, including: plants grown in commercially produced soil-less growing media, and plants that need to be returned to the original supplier outside the regulated area, must meet CFIA requirements to be moved outside of the regulated area. Such movements will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Plants may or may not be eligible to move outside the regulated area depending on a number of factors, including: size of the plant root ball, or availability of effective and approved treatments as per section 5.3 of D-96-15. Please contact the CFIA (see section 1.1) if you need to move plants outside of a regulated area.
Plant retailers or suppliers play an important role in helping prevent the unintentional human-assisted spread of Japanese beetle from regulated areas by informing their associates and customers about the plant and soil movement restrictions, as outlined in this document. Plant suppliers should adjust their practices to prevent movement of regulated plant material outside of the regulated area.
Plant waste with soil for disposal
Plant waste may be disposed of through a municipal green/compost waste program in accordance with program requirements. Contact the CFIA before moving regulated articles out of the regulated area for disposal. See section 5.2 for information on where to take green plant waste (plants and plant parts without soil) during the Japanese beetle flight period (June 15 to October 15).
(see section 8.0 for definition of "green plant waste")
A CFIA movement certificate is required before moving regulated articles outside of the regulated area for disposal. These articles must be treated or disposed of in accordance with CFIA specifications (for example heat-treatment or deep burial).
4.4 Plants and above-ground plant parts with no soil attached – regulated during the Japanese beetle flight period (from June 15 to October 15)
This category of regulated article includes: all outdoor plants; plant parts which are substantially free from soil; and green plant waste.
(see section 8.0 for definition of "green plant waste")
As much as possible, these materials should be mulched in place or composted within the same regulated area. During the Japanese beetle flight period, from June 15 to October 15, a movement certificate is required to move these regulated articles out of a regulated area.
If you are disposing of green plant waste through a municipal green waste or leaf collection program, you do not need a movement certificate.
See section 5.3 for more information on municipal transfer stations.
5.0 Disposal and treatment options for regulated articles
5.1 Options for disposal and treatment of regulated articles staying within a regulated area (no movement certificate required)
Please use the green/compost bins which are picked up by your city to dispose of regulated plant waste that is substantially free from soil, such as: pruning waste, grass clippings, leaves, weeds, or spent flowers. Municipal requirements for green bins must still be followed.
(see section 8.0 for definition of "substantially free from soil")
See section 4.0 for Movement Requirements which are in effect year-round on regulated articles (including soil, plants and plant parts with soil) leaving a regulated area.
See section 5.3 for information about Transfer Station disposal of regulated articles.
5.2 Options for disposal and treatment of regulated articles outside of a regulated area (movement certificate required)
All regulated articles leaving a regulated area require a movement certificate, and when applicable, must be treated or disposed of in a CFIA-approved manner.
Please contact CFIA prior to initiating treatment or disposal processes to apply for a movement certificate. A map of the regulated areas in BC - PDF (2,160 kb) is available here.
To request a movement certificate, email the CFIA a completed copy of the application form found in Appendix 2. The CFIA-issued movement certificate will list of set of conditions that must be followed to mitigate the risk of spreading the beetle from a regulated area to a pest-free area.
See section 5.3 for information about Transfer Station disposal of regulated articles.
Heat treatment or composting are potential treatment options for regulated articles, see Appendix 3 for more details.
Deep burial is an approved disposal method. The Vancouver Landfill will accept some material for deep burial from the regulated areas by appointment.
If you would like to use one of these treatment options or a different disposal site, please contact the CFIA for additional information. CFIA approval is required prior to using any new treatment and disposal options that are not indicated in this section or in Appendix 3. Propose alternative options in writing to CFIA for consideration and include a detailed description of the regulated articles and the disposal or treatment process.
5.3 Transfer Station disposal of regulated articles (movement certificate may be required)
A transfer station is a municipally managed site which has been designated as an approved facility to collect, consolidate or process various forms of waste received. Specific transfer stations in the cities of Vancouver and Burnaby have been designated to receive green waste and very small amounts of soil from the regulated areas.
You are expected to dispose of acceptable regulated articles at the transfer station nearest to your location within the regulated area (see Table 1), to mitigate the risk of spreading the beetle from a regulated area to a pest-free area. All regulated articles leaving the regulated area require a movement certificate. Please contact the CFIA to apply for a movement certificate prior to disposing of regulated articles at a transfer station outside of your regulated area.
|Transfer Station||Address||Location||Is a Movement Certificate required to bring regulated articles to this site?||Examples of regulated articles accepted at this Transfer Station||Dates Open|
|Temporary Transfer Station||301 W 1st Ave, Vancouver||Located inside of the Vancouver regulated area and outside of the Burnaby regulated areas||No - if regulated articles are from the Vancouver regulated area yes – if regulated articles are from the Burnaby regulated area||
||Japanese beetle flight period (June 15 to October 15)|
|Vancouver South Transfer Station||377 W Kent Ave N, Vancouver||Located outside of the Vancouver and Burnaby regulated areas||Yes – if regulated articles are from the Vancouver or Burnaby regulated area||
|Burnaby Eco Centre||4855 Still Creek, Burnaby||Located outside of the Vancouver and Burnaby regulated areas||Yes – if regulated articles are from the Vancouver or Burnaby regulated area||
Fees may apply and accepted methods of payment may differ at each transfer station. Transfer station access and hours of operation are subject to change. For more information and a complete list of accepted items, visit the following municipal websites:
5.4 Regular or frequent movement of restricted articles from a regulated area to a site outside of the same regulated area
You may be eligible for an annual multi-use movement certificate if you live or work in a regulated area, or manage multiple worksites situated within a regulated area, and need to regularly or frequently transport regulated articles to a location outside of the same regulated area (e.g. an approved deep burial site, treatment site, transfer station, retail location or other site). Please contact the CFIA (see section 1.1) prior to beginning work, as needs will be assessed on a case-by-case basis.
Once issued, you will be provided with a list of conditions which must be met on all movements. You will also be expected to maintain a movement control log to record the movement of all regulated articles outside of a regulated area. The CFIA can request a copy of this log at any time for audit purposes. The CFIA may also audit the movement of regulated articles at any time. Such an audit may include following a load of regulated articles from start to end destination, observing handling of regulated articles on site, or other inspection activities.
6.0 Additional measures to help prevent the spread of Japanese beetle from the regulated area
6.1 Report all Japanese beetle sightings
If you see insects which you suspect are adult Japanese beetles (see Image 1), or if you see signs of feeding damage which may be caused by Japanese beetle (see Image 2), please take high-resolution photographs and send them to the CFIA by email. When possible, attempt to collect as many beetles as you can in a sealed hard-sided container, place the container in the freezer, and then contact the CFIA by phone at 604-292-5742 or by email.
6.2 Handling regulated articles
To reduce the risk of spreading Japanese beetle, changes to standard operating procedures may be necessary. The CFIA is not responsible for any additional costs incurred as a result of Japanese beetle movement restrictions.
Do the following when working in a regulated area year-round:
- Follow all movement restrictions! (see section 6.0)
- Plan ahead. Obtain a movement certificate from the CFIA before you move soil and other regulated articles out of a regulated area (see sections 1.1, 2.0 and 4.0 for more information).
- Leave as much soil as you can at your worksite.
- Mulch plant waste in place or compost within the same regulated area.
- When possible, use the green/compost bins which are picked up by your city to dispose of regulated plant waste that is substantially free from soil, such as: pruning waste, grass clippings, leaves, weeds, or spent flowers. Municipal requirements for green bins must still be followed.
- Leave root balls and below-ground parts in the ground, and dispose of the above-ground portion, as needed, and in accordance with current regulations.
- Remember: there is no need to segregate green waste from soil if it will all be deep buried at the Vancouver Landfill (see section 4.1).
- Clean all soil from boots, clothing, equipment and tools, including: lawn mowers, rakes, shovels, trimmers, wheelbarrows, brooms, etc., before you go to another site or leave the regulated area. Be especially diligent when cleaning aerating and power raking equipment because this equipment presents a significant risk for carrying various Japanese beetle life stages. Please avoid using this equipment within the regulated areas as much as possible.
- Check for adult Japanese beetle hitchhikers on clothing, as well as, inside and outside vehicles and equipment.
- Prior to leaving a regulated area, and before leaving disposal/transfer sites, sweep out tarps, grass catchers, vehicles (for example: truck boxes, containers, dump trucks) used to transport regulated material, where possible.
- Tarp your load properly to prevent Japanese beetle from flying out. Watch this video from the Invasive Species Council of British Columbia (ISCBC) for tips on how to tarp your load.
- If you are working inside and outside the regulated area, do not bring regulated articles (plant material and soil) to work sites outside the regulated area.
- Do not store regulated articles outside the regulated area.
- Keep a map of the regulated areas - PDF (2,160 kb) in all crew trucks for easy reference.
- Plan your route to minimize movement outside of the regulated area, and always try to bring regulated articles to the transfer station or disposal site that is nearest to your worksite(s) (see section 5.0).
From June 15 to October 15, shake plants to remove any Japanese beetle prior to disposal or prior to loading it into your vehicle for transport to a CFIA-approved site.
6.3 Promoting awareness about Japanese beetle
Where applicable, please work with plant suppliers (vendors) and other associates to establish roles and responsibilities regarding Japanese beetle movement restrictions for plants and green waste to ensure you are compliant. Contact the CFIA by email to obtain Japanese beetle outreach materials that you can display and distribute.
6.4 Managing plant returns from a regulated area
People and organizations located outside of a regulated area are encouraged to reject plant returns from the regulated area due to the potential risk of spreading Japanese beetle. In the event that plants with soil from the regulated area are accepted at a location outside the regulated area, immediately secure and safeguard the plants (for example double-bag them) and call the CFIA (see section 1.1) to get a movement certificate. Those people or organizations in care and control of the regulated plants are responsible for all costs associated with disposal of the non-compliant plants.
7.0 Non-compliance with the movement requirements for Japanese beetle
When issues of non-compliance are observed, the CFIA will follow the Agency's Compliance and Enforcement Policy.
One of the enforcement options is to issue an Administrative Monetary Penalty (AMP), which is a Notice of Violation with either a warning or a penalty. Penalties for individuals can range from $500 to $1,300, and from $1,300 to $10,000 for violations committed during the course of business.
Learn more about the Japanese beetle and get updates on this response effort.
Please visit the CFIA's Plant Health Glossary of Terms for definitions which may not be included here.
- approved facility
an entity that has received official approval from the CFIA to perform specific activities described in a program.
- green plant waste
includes: plants, above-ground plant parts, and plant parts that are substantially free from soil, such as: grass clippings, leaves, weeds, spent flowers, or pruning waste. Leaf-free woody material and commercially-grown cut flowers or decorative branches are exempted articles; see section 3.0 for more information.
- Japanese beetle flight period
occurs in Canada from June 15 to October 15 in the current calendar year.
- movement certificate
a document, issued pursuant to the Plant Protection Act and signed by an inspector, that authorizes the movement of things within Canada or from Canada to a foreign destination (Plant Protection Regulations).
- outside of the Japanese beetle flight period
occurs in Canada from January 1 to June 14 and from October 16 to December 31 in the current calendar year.
- regulated area
an area into which, within which and/or from which plants, plant products and other regulated articles are subjected to phytosanitary regulations or procedures in order to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests (ISPM No. 5)..
fine sand, clay or other material carried by running water and deposited as sediment, especially in a channel or harbour.
the loose surface of the earth in which plants grow, in most cases consisting of disintegrated rock with an admixture of organic matter, including related matter, such as: clay, silt, sand, soil minerals, humus, compost, earthworm castings, muck, plant litter and debris, either individually or as a combination of these or other similar materials.
Note: Material that does not fit the definition of "soil" may include: rocks, concrete, other types of inorganic construction waste, or combinations of inorganic material used as fill that are substantially free from soil, clay, sand, and/or silt.
- substantially free from soil
articles are considered "substantially free from soil" when the articles have been cleaned, brushed, shaken and/or washed, and the maximum size of any individual clump of soil remaining on the material is less than 12.7 mm (0.5 inches) in diameter.
Appendix 1 - Application Form for a Site Assessment by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) for Movement of Soil out of a Japanese beetle Regulated Area
PDF (70 kb)
Company Name (if applicable):
Contact Person Name:
Contact Phone Number:
Is the soil on the site currently covered by an impermeable surface (asphalt / concrete / gravel)? Please describe the type of material that is covering the soil.
Yes / No / Don't Know
General description of the soil to be moved. For example: "top soil" or "fill dirt"?
Is there any grass/turf/sod/lawn/plants growing on the site?
Yes / No / Don't Know
Does your company have a permit from the BC Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy, to move the soil from the site?
Yes / No / Don't Know
If yes, provide a copy of the permit with this application and provide details, including:
Where do you plan to move the soil (address)?
What is the projected start date of soil removal (DD/MM/YYYY)?
In order to complete this assessment, you must submit this completed form and good-quality photos of the entire site (showing the ground cover / soil) to: BCPF.Japanese.Beetle@inspection.gc.ca prior to any work being done
Additional information (For example: Is this a one-time movement or will multiple trips out of the regulated area be needed? Are other companies involved in this project?):
Appendix 2 – Application for movement certification of regulated material for Japanese beetle under the Plant Protection Act and the Japanese Beetle Ministerial Order
PDF (135 kb)
Before completing your application, please refer to the links below, as these are tools to assist you in determining if a Movement Certificate is required for the material you wish to move within Canada.
- A Coordinated Response to Eradicate Japanese beetle in British Columbia (BC)
- Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the spread of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in Canada and the United States (D-96-15)
- Japanese Beetle Ministerial Order for the Cities of Burnaby and Vancouver, BC
Send the completed application by email to: BCPF.Japanese.Beetle@inspection.gc.ca
Upon receipt of a completed application, the issuance of a movement certificate may take up to five business days. If you need more space to provide the information requested on this form, you may attach additional pages to this application. Please make sure the applicant/contact name is included on each additional page.
Please note that incomplete applications may cause a delay in this process.
You may contact the CFIA at 604-292-5742 or by email at BCPF.Japanese.Beetle@inspection.gc.ca for any questions regarding this form.
I want to receive a Movement Certificate by:
Organization/Company Name (if applicable)
Organization/Company Street Address
Description of article(s) to be moved out of regulated area:
Top 30cm of undisturbed soil
Soil that is 30 cm or deeper, or soil from beneath impermeable surface
Rooted plants with attached soil
Above-ground plant parts (regulated June 15-Oct 15)
Other, please describe:
Article End Use:
Treatment / Processing
For Single Movement/Shipment
Planned Start Date:
Planned End Date:
For Multiple Movements/Shipments
Planned Period Start Date:
Planned Period End Date:
Article Origin Address(es) (Work site address)
Article Destination Address(es)
How did you learn about Japanese beetle movement restrictions?
I certify that I am the applicant on this application and that I comply with the requirements of the Plant Protection Act and the Plant Protection Regulations, including section 30 of those regulations, and that the information provided in this Application for Movement Certification is true, correct and complete.
The information collected on this form may be accessible or protected under the provisions of the Access to Information Act and the Privacy Act.
Print your name here
Organization Name/Company Name
The information you provide in this document and associated attachments are collected by the CFIA under the authority of the Plant Protection Act for the purpose of issuing a Movement Certificate. Personal information will be protected under the provisions of the Privacy Act and will be stored in Personal Information Bank CFIA/PPU-115. Information may be accessible or protected under the provisions of the Access to Information Act and the Privacy Act. Page 2 of 2
Appendix 3 – Composting and heat treatment specifications for Japanese beetle regulated material in British Columbia
PDF (69 kb)
If you are heat treating or composting regulated articles, you must maintain records of the following procedures. In order to verify temperature, time, moisture and receiving time, these records must be made available to CFIA upon request.
- Regulated articles may be composted at CFIA-authorized composting facilities, as specified in the table below.
- The authorized composting facility may compost regulated articles if they ensure the material enters the composting process within 24 hours of arrival at the facility.
- The authorized composting facility may compost the regulated articles if they ensure the compost has a minimum moisture content of 40% and is turned frequently. Frequent turning will ensure the entire mass reaches or exceeds the required minimum temperature for at least the minimum required time.
Heat Treatment: Regulated articles may be heat treated, as specified in the table below. Timing of the heat treatment begins only when the entire mass has reached or exceeded the targeted temperature. Records and documentation must be made available to the CFIA.
Table A: Composting and heat treatment schedules for regulated articles to lessen the risk of Japanese beetle.
|Description||Minimum temperature||Minimum moisture content||Minimum time|
|Composting||55°C (131°F)||40%||2 weeks|
|Composting||65°C (149°F)||40%||1 week|
|Heat treatment||74°C (165°F)||Saturated/Wet heat||4 hours|
|Heat treatment||80°C (176°F)||Saturated/Wet heat||2 hours|
|Heat treatment||90°C (194°F)||Saturated/Wet heat||1 hour|
- Date modified: