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Outbreak Investigation Report on H5N2 Avian Influenza in Ontario, 2015
2. National Avian Influenza Surveillance

2.1 Commercial Poultry

The Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza Surveillance System (CanNAISS) is a joint initiative of government and industry that supports Canada's claim of freedom from NAI by providing ongoing surveillance of the commercial poultry population. The System is intended to prevent, detect and/or demonstrate the freedom from NAI in Canada's domestic poultry flocks. Designed to meet WOAH guidelines, CanNAISS pertains specifically to high-pathogenic avian influenza and low-pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes of NAI. During an outbreak of NAI, CanNAISS provides surveillance on premises and areas not part of the outbreak, complementing the CFIA's NAI Hazard Specific Plan (HSP) and supporting Canada's reporting to international organizations such as the WOAH.

The CanNAISS includes:

  • Detection of HPAI in domestic poultry through passive surveillance;
  • Verification of the effectiveness of passive surveillance through active surveillance;
  • Detection of LPAI circulating in domestic poultry through active surveillance; and
  • Detection of NAI in post-outbreak surveillance.

2.2 Wild Birds

In 2005, Canada initiated an inter-agency annual survey for influenza A viruses in wild birds. These surveys (2005-2015) are used to assess the risk of exposure of AI from migrating wild birds to poultry. Since 2005, 4376 dead birds and 2794 live birds have been tested in Ontario under the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) national surveillance program. The Influenza A virus has been found in 686 samples including three positive samples for H5 (2005, 2007, 2010). 

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