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Cleaning and disinfection process for premises declared infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)

Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) is performed on premises declared infected to ensure the site (including areas that animals have occupied, materials, equipment and other items identified as contaminated) do not pose a risk for the transmission of a federally reportable disease.


On premises that have been issued a Declaration of an Infected Place (CFIA/ACIA form 4204), cleaning and disinfection is required. The CFIA C&D Unit will conduct an assessment of the premises to determine the degree of contamination and risk of transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza. The CFIA will develop a decontamination plan in consultation with the owner/producer and issue the owner of the premises an Order to Clean & Disinfect (CFIA/ACIA form 4207), reviewing with the owner the requirements of the plan.

The owner will conduct the C&D under the approval and oversight of the CFIA.

The CFIA oversees the C&D of the premises, conducting a minimum of four site visits. When cleaning and disinfection is completed to the satisfaction of the CFIA, a signed declaration is provided indicating approval of the process. The premises remains under CFIA control until a Declaration That a Premises Has Ceased to Be an Infected Place (CFIA/ACIA form 4205) is issued.

Important considerations


The avian influenza virus can be shed by infected animals in their respiratory and fecal secretions. The virus has been shown to survive for extended periods of time depending on the temperature and humidity of the environment. It can survive in cool temperatures in organic material such as manure and water dugouts.


Cleaning & Disinfection normally involves 6 (six) steps:

While the process for C&D is similar for all infected premises, the specific requirements and needs must be tailored to address the disease risks and issues specific to each premises. In some circumstances not all six steps will be required.

Primary Decontamination (Step 1 and 2)

Step 1: Removal of contaminated materials and products

This step covers the removal of contaminated materials and products not suitable for cleaning and disinfection and their proper disposal. The CFIA Disposal Unit will provide guidance on disposal of contaminated material or things that are not suitable for C&D.

Step 2: Dry cleaning

This step covers the dry cleaning of surfaces (using shovels, scrapers, brushes, etc.) to remove gross organic material as much as possible, including blowing or sweeping out interior spaces.

Dry cleaning is the most important step in the C&D process; it removes the largest amount of infectious (contaminated) material containing the avian influenza virus and when performed correctly, reduces the amount of work required for wet cleaning.

Notify your CFIA case officer as soon as primary decontamination (steps 1 and 2) are complete so that a site visit can be scheduled as soon as possible. Work on wet cleaning (step 3) can begin before the site visit occurs.

The completion of primary decontamination is key milestone. It allows post outbreak surveillance in the primary control zone to start.

Step 3: Wet cleaning

This step covers the wet cleaning of surfaces (using soaps, detergents, or products such as enzymes) to further remove gross organic material and biofilms. Use a low pressure setting if cleaning with a power washer.

Step 4: Drying (post cleaning)

This step covers the drying of surfaces (this may include the use of supplemental heat in buildings)

Contact the CFIA for approval of the cleaning process.
An inspection is required before beginning the disinfection process.

Step 5: Disinfection

This step covers the disinfection of surfaces (using a chemical disinfectant registered and approved for that purpose) or other suitable method/physical process to inactivate the agent of concern. (for example, heat treatment through flaming or burning).

The use of a chemical disinfectant that has been issued a drug identification number (DIN) by Health Canada and is effective against avian influenza is recommended. Alternatively, any other method (physical disinfection process) that provides adequate inactivation of the pathogen can be applied to surfaces if suitable. Wood may also be treated with moist or dry heat (surface burned), or removed or patched as appropriate.

For solid wood products (lumber), plywood and oriented strand board (OSB), saturating the surfaces with disinfectant to the level necessary to prevent infection of a new flock with avian influenza virus is required.

However, the pores and spaces in wood may interfere with the removal of bacteria and viruses, which can make it difficult to disinfect.

A wood surface that cannot be adequately disinfected may be sealed / painted as part of the decontamination process but this is not normally required. It will be only be considered by CFIA when other options to achieve the desired level of disinfection fail.

Contact the CFIA for the supervision and approval of the disinfection process.

Step 6: Drying (post disinfection)

This step covers the drying of surfaces (this may include the use of supplemental heat on equipment or in buildings)

Overview of the Cleaning and Disinfection Process

Farm Site Status

CFIA has completed depopulation and disposal

CFIA Site Visit #1 – C&D Site Assessment

CFIA develops the decontamination plan (in consultation with the owner) and orders C&D.

CFIA Site Visit #2 – Primary Decontamination

CFIA approves primary decontamination work.

CFIA Site Visit #3 – Clean inspection

CFIA approves wet stage cleaning.

CFIA Site Visit #4 – Disinfection Inspection

CFIA approves disinfection.


Examples of disinfectants effective against avian influenza virus:

Note: Inclusion of disinfectant products listed here does not indicate an endorsement by the CFIA. Disinfectant products vary in their ability to inactivate pathogens on different surfaces under a range of environmental conditions. The suitability and efficacy of a disinfectant will vary and producers should seek additional guidance from their veterinarian or supplier.

  1. Concentrated Bleach (Sodium hypochlorite).
    Household sodium hypochlorite concentration is generally 5-6%. A dilution of 1 part of bleach and 4 parts of water (1/5 solution) should be used.
  2. PREvail™ (accelerated hydrogen peroxide) manufactured by Virox.
    Follow label directions of the disinfectant. Consideration of using 1/16 dilution and 10-20 minutes contact time in cold weather.
  3. NEUTRAQUAT 256 (Quaternary Ammonium Compound) manufactured by Amano Pioneer Eclipse Corporation. Follow label directions.
  4. Quat-3 (Quaternary Ammonium Compound) manufactured by Wood Wyant.  Follow label directions.
  5. VERT2GO SABER Concentrated (Hydrogen Peroxide) manufactured by Wood Wyant.  Follow label directions.
  6. SANIDATE 5.0 sanitizer/disinfectant (Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid) manufactured by Biosafe Systems Llc. Follow label directions.
  7. Vesphene® IIIse Phenolic Disinfectant (Phenol) manufactured by Steris Corporation. Follow label directions.

PREvail™ (also known as Accel™) 1/16 with calcium chloride

Contact time required: a minimum of 10 minutes under ideal conditions. During cold temperatures, increased contact time will be required. Discuss requirements with the CFIA C&D Unit.

To make 1 litre for use at Water Table Note a Calcium Chloride Accel Prevention Concentrate 7% Table Note b
0 to −20°Celsius 800 ml (+) 200 g 63 ml

Calcium chloride purchasing information

Product Format Order number
Xynyth Calcium Chloride 94-97% 50kg Acklands Grainger # XYN200-50049
Calcium Chloride 3kg Fisher Scientific C6143

Accel 1/16 with propylene glycol

Discuss requirements with the CFIA C&D Unit.

To make 1 litre for use at Water Propylene glycol Accel Prevention Concentrate 7%
0 to −10°Celsius 637 ml 300 ml 63 ml
−10 to −20°Celsius 537 ml 400 ml 63 ml

Propylene glycol purchasing information

Product Format Supplier – Order number
Propylene Glycol 18.9L Hall-Chem Table Note c PG300-19
Prestone Plumbing/RV Antifreeze Table Note d 4L Canadian Tire #63-9926-4
Propylene Glycol USP/FCC 4 L Fisher Scientific – P3554
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