Cleaning and disinfection process for premises declared infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)
Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) is performed on premises declared infected to ensure the site (including areas that animals have occupied, materials, equipment and other items identified as contaminated) do not pose a risk for the transmission of a federally reportable disease.
On premises that have been issued a Declaration of an Infected Place (CFIA/ACIA form 4204), cleaning and disinfection is required. The CFIA C&D Unit will conduct an assessment of the premises to determine the degree of contamination and risk of transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza. The CFIA will develop a decontamination plan in consultation with the owner/producer and issue the owner of the premises an Order to Clean & Disinfect (CFIA/ACIA form 4207), reviewing with the owner the requirements of the plan.
The owner will conduct the C&D under the approval and oversight of the CFIA.
The CFIA oversees the C&D of the premises, conducting a minimum of four site visits. When cleaning and disinfection is completed to the satisfaction of the CFIA, a signed declaration is provided indicating approval of the process. The premises remains under CFIA control until a Declaration That a Premises Has Ceased to Be an Infected Place (CFIA/ACIA form 4205) is issued.
- Under the federal Health of Animals Act and Regulations, producers are not eligible for compensation from the CFIA for the costs of C&D.
- The avian influenza virus can occasionally cause disease in humans. While human infections are rare, minimizing potential exposure to the pathogen is important. Some measures to reduce exposure and transmission include minimizing aerosolization of dust particles during C&D. In dry conditions, consideration may be given to lightly wetting down material using power washers with a low pressure spray. Producers are advised to seek guidance from their health care professional on the risks and measures to minimize disease exposure.
The avian influenza virus can be shed by infected animals in their respiratory and fecal secretions. The virus has been shown to survive for extended periods of time depending on the temperature and humidity of the environment. It can survive in cool temperatures in organic material such as manure and water dugouts.
Cleaning & Disinfection normally involves 6 (six) steps:
While the process for C&D is similar for all infected premises, the specific requirements and needs must be tailored to address the disease risks and issues specific to each premises. In some circumstances not all six steps will be required.
Primary Decontamination (Step 1 and 2)
Step 1: Removal of contaminated materials and products
This step covers the removal of contaminated materials and products not suitable for cleaning and disinfection and their proper disposal. The CFIA Disposal Unit will provide guidance on disposal of contaminated material or things that are not suitable for C&D.
- Remove contaminated materials (such as scrap lumber, pallets, cardboard boxes, etc.) that are not suitable for C&D to a location designated by the CFIA Disposal Unit. Disposal of the materials may include burning, burial or other methods as approved by the CFIA Disposal Unit.
- Remove accumulations of manure, used bedding, and other organic material for treatment and or disposal to a location on the premises as directed by the CFIA Disposal and C&D Units.
- Remove equipment and materials that can be C&D to an appropriate location on the premises as approved by the CFIA C&D Unit. When cleaning buildings, pens and large equipment, there may be items that can be cleaned and disinfected, yet interfere with cleaning and disinfecting of the location. For example, feeders, waterers, pitchforks, shovels, wheel barrows, buckets, bottles and other items should be cleaned and disinfected and moved to a "clean" area on the premises or moved to a location on the premises and cleaned and disinfected.
Step 2: Dry cleaning
This step covers the dry cleaning of surfaces (using shovels, scrapers, brushes, etc.) to remove gross organic material as much as possible, including blowing or sweeping out interior spaces.
Dry cleaning is the most important step in the C&D process; it removes the largest amount of infectious (contaminated) material containing the avian influenza virus and when performed correctly, reduces the amount of work required for wet cleaning.
- Organic material must be removed from surfaces such as walls, floors, roosts and cages (particularly from the areas animals have occupied) as it will inactivate disinfectants and render disinfection procedures ineffective. Any equipment in those areas are subject to the same protocol (for example, water lines, feeders, tractors, manure spreaders, etc.).
- Removal of used bedding and contaminated feed for appropriate treatment/disposal.
- Removal of manure piles and manure present on the ground for appropriate treatment and disposal.
- Removal of 2.5 cm of soil from outdoor areas that have a high volume of animal congregations such as around feeders, near water sources, etc) may be required.
Notify your CFIA case officer as soon as primary decontamination (steps 1 and 2) are complete so that a site visit can be scheduled as soon as possible. Work on wet cleaning (step 3) can begin before the site visit occurs.
The completion of primary decontamination is key milestone. It allows post outbreak surveillance in the primary control zone to start.
Step 3: Wet cleaning
This step covers the wet cleaning of surfaces (using soaps, detergents, or products such as enzymes) to further remove gross organic material and biofilms. Use a low pressure setting if cleaning with a power washer.
- Use of soaps, detergents, or enzymatic cleaners for the removal of biofilms and small amounts of organic material if still present. Flaming or burning of surfaces for removal and inactivation of biofilms and organic material (if still present) that are not amenable to wet cleaning (for example, wood, packed clay, etc.) or when climatic conditions (for example, freezing temperatures) interfere with the process.
Step 4: Drying (post cleaning)
This step covers the drying of surfaces (this may include the use of supplemental heat in buildings)
- Allow all surfaces to thoroughly dry as this assists in inactivating the avian influenza virus.
Contact the CFIA for approval of the cleaning process.
An inspection is required before beginning the disinfection process.
Step 5: Disinfection
This step covers the disinfection of surfaces (using a chemical disinfectant registered and approved for that purpose) or other suitable method/physical process to inactivate the agent of concern. (for example, heat treatment through flaming or burning).
The use of a chemical disinfectant that has been issued a drug identification number (DIN) by Health Canada and is effective against avian influenza is recommended. Alternatively, any other method (physical disinfection process) that provides adequate inactivation of the pathogen can be applied to surfaces if suitable. Wood may also be treated with moist or dry heat (surface burned), or removed or patched as appropriate.
For solid wood products (lumber), plywood and oriented strand board (OSB), saturating the surfaces with disinfectant to the level necessary to prevent infection of a new flock with avian influenza virus is required.
However, the pores and spaces in wood may interfere with the removal of bacteria and viruses, which can make it difficult to disinfect.
A wood surface that cannot be adequately disinfected may be sealed / painted as part of the decontamination process but this is not normally required. It will be only be considered by CFIA when other options to achieve the desired level of disinfection fail.
Contact the CFIA for the supervision and approval of the disinfection process.
Step 6: Drying (post disinfection)
This step covers the drying of surfaces (this may include the use of supplemental heat on equipment or in buildings)
- Allow all surfaces to thoroughly dry as this assists in inactivating the avian influenza virus.
- Following completion of all C&D activities, CFIA controls remain in place on the premises for a minimum of 14 days. Live bird restocking can be done during this period but a CFIA permit is required to move birds on to the farm is required. A 14 day surveillance period begins on the restocked birds once they are placed. Live bird testing is required at the end of this period before the declaration of an infected place (quarantine) is removed.
Overview of the Cleaning and Disinfection Process
Farm Site Status
CFIA has completed depopulation and disposal
- Producer contacts CFIA to determine whether C&D can commence and requests the CFIA to issue an order to C&D.
CFIA Site Visit #1 – C&D Site Assessment
CFIA develops the decontamination plan (in consultation with the owner) and orders C&D.
- The assessment may be completed prior to completion of depopulation and disposal.
- Decontamination plan reviewed with owner/contractor by CFIA and following the review cleaning can start.
- Producer notifies CFIA case officer as soon as primary decontamination (removal of contaminated materials / products and dry cleaning stage) are complete.
CFIA Site Visit #2 – Primary Decontamination
CFIA approves primary decontamination work.
- Primary decontamination is the removal of contaminated materials / products and dry cleaning of surfaces.
- Approval of primary decontamination of the last infected premises in a PCZ allows post outbreak surveilliance to begin.
CFIA Site Visit #3 – Clean inspection
CFIA approves wet stage cleaning.
- Surfaces must be allowed to dry prior to disinfection.
- Producer contacts CFIA to request "Disinfection Inspection".
CFIA Site Visit #4 – Disinfection Inspection
CFIA approves disinfection.
- Producer completes disinfection of premises and things under CFIA oversight.
- CFIA controls remain in place on the premises for a minimum of 14 days.
- Live bird restocking can be done during this period but a CFIA permit is required to move birds on to the farm is required. (see Step #6 above).
- Appropriate use of Personal Protective Equipment is required throughout all steps of the C&D process.
- CFIA staff will be available to provide guidance on all aspects of the C&D process.
- CFIA may require additional formal inspections throughout the C&D process
Examples of disinfectants effective against avian influenza virus:
Note: Inclusion of disinfectant products listed here does not indicate an endorsement by the CFIA. Disinfectant products vary in their ability to inactivate pathogens on different surfaces under a range of environmental conditions. The suitability and efficacy of a disinfectant will vary and producers should seek additional guidance from their veterinarian or supplier.
- Concentrated Bleach (Sodium hypochlorite).
Household sodium hypochlorite concentration is generally 5-6%. A dilution of 1 part of bleach and 4 parts of water (1/5 solution) should be used.
- PREvail™ (accelerated hydrogen peroxide) manufactured by Virox.
Follow label directions of the disinfectant. Consideration of using 1/16 dilution and 10-20 minutes contact time in cold weather.
- NEUTRAQUAT 256 (Quaternary Ammonium Compound) manufactured by Amano Pioneer Eclipse Corporation. Follow label directions.
- Quat-3 (Quaternary Ammonium Compound) manufactured by Wood Wyant. Follow label directions.
- VERT2GO SABER Concentrated (Hydrogen Peroxide) manufactured by Wood Wyant. Follow label directions.
- SANIDATE 5.0 sanitizer/disinfectant (Hydrogen Peroxide and Peracetic Acid) manufactured by Biosafe Systems Llc. Follow label directions.
- Vesphene® IIIse Phenolic Disinfectant (Phenol) manufactured by Steris Corporation. Follow label directions.
PREvail™ (also known as Accel™) 1/16 with calcium chloride
Contact time required: a minimum of 10 minutes under ideal conditions. During cold temperatures, increased contact time will be required. Discuss requirements with the CFIA C&D Unit.
|To make 1 litre for use at||Water Table Note a||Calcium Chloride||Accel Prevention Concentrate 7% Table Note b|
|0 to −20°Celsius||800 ml (+)||200 g||63 ml|
Calcium chloride purchasing information
|Xynyth Calcium Chloride 94-97%||50kg||Acklands Grainger # XYN200-50049|
|Calcium Chloride||3kg||Fisher Scientific C6143|
Accel 1/16 with propylene glycol
Discuss requirements with the CFIA C&D Unit.
|To make 1 litre for use at||Water||Propylene glycol||Accel Prevention Concentrate 7%|
|0 to −10°Celsius||637 ml||300 ml||63 ml|
|−10 to −20°Celsius||537 ml||400 ml||63 ml|
Propylene glycol purchasing information
|Product||Format||Supplier – Order number|
|Propylene Glycol||18.9L||Hall-Chem Table Note c PG300-19|
|Prestone Plumbing/RV Antifreeze Table Note d||4L||Canadian Tire #63-9926-4|
|Propylene Glycol USP/FCC||4 L||Fisher Scientific – P3554|
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