Overview of the cleaning and disinfection process for small flock (non-commercial and non-poultry) infected premises

Cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of an infected premises is a key step toward the removal of the  CFIA premises specific movement restrictions that are established on premises, materials, animals and things when an inspector suspects or determines that avian influenza exists in a place and could spread. C&D is performed on premises confirmed to be infected to ensure the site (including areas that animals have occupied, materials, equipment and other items identified as contaminated) do not pose a risk for the transmission of avian influenza.

If the entire C&D process is not completed, an infected premises will remain under premises specific movement restrictions for the duration of a fallow period (no restocking of birds) of at least 120 days to allow for the natural inactivation of the virus to occur. The length of the fallow period can be affected by factors such as the minimum daily temperatures that can inactivate the virus being reached.

Site assessment

The CFIA will complete a site assessment to determine the appropriate C&D measures for the premises. Thorough C&D (as outlined in the general C&D document) will be required for buildings and equipment that have been used for domestic bird production.  During the site assessment other C&D measures for non-production buildings and equipment will be identified that an owner will need to complete before an inspector can release the premises specific movement restrictions on that premises.

The site assessment will include evaluation of:

  • poultry production buildings / non-production buildings
  • outdoor housing areas
  • ponds / dugouts
  • feed and water (leftover feed and feeding/watering systems)
  • manure (location and volume of accumulated manure)
  • straw, shavings and litter (location of remaining leftover materials)

A CFIA C&D member will provide the owner with guidance on the actions required for both the production and non-production areas as well as any equipment on the premises.

C&D steps

The CFIA has developed criteria for the remote verification of some steps of the C&D process for eligible non-commercial premises.  These remote verifications will be considered on a case by case where there is a simple structural layout and the owner is willing and able to provide suitable documentation related to their C&D plan.  If at any point in the C&D process the inspector does not have the necessary information or is unable to verify C&D actions remotely, onsite verification is required.

For those premises completing a full C&D (no fallow period), the wet cleaning inspection (site visit #3) will always be done in person by a CFIA inspector.

What to expect: CFIA site visits

Farm site status: Destruction and disposal complete.

CFIA site visit number 1: Site assessment

  • CFIA assesses the site and orders C&D
  • Assessment of the entire premises is done by CFIA inspection staff in order to determine the extent of C&D required for each area.  Focus is put on areas that housed birds and areas in which birds had regular access to.
  • Producer develops a C&D Plan for their premises
  • CFIA approves the producer's C&D Plan
  • Producer commences C&D activities

CFIA site visit number 2: Primary decontamination inspection

  • CFIA confirms primary decontamination
  • Verification of the removal of the majority of visible contamination and organic material from areas and equipment that was deemed contaminated during the site assessment.
  • Note: Producer can continue to complete dry cleaning and move onto wet cleaning while awaiting confirmation of this step

CFIA site visit number 3: Clean inspection

  • CFIA approves cleaning, if adequate
  • Verification that adequate wet cleaning or other decontamination steps depending on type of C&D used are complete.  Areas should be free of visible organic material to be ready for application of appropriate disinfectant.

CFIA site visit number 4: Disinfection inspection

  • CFIA approves disinfection, if adequate
  • Documents and supporting evidence (e.g. empty disinfectant containers, written calculations for disinfectant, etc.) needs to be provided by the owner/operator to verify the type and amount of disinfectant used, concentration and application rate, application methods and contact time. If alternate means of treatment or inactivation were used (e.g. burning or burial of materials, litter,  whitewashing or painting of wood, heat treatment of buildings, etc.), this must also be demonstrated to the CFIA inspector as appropriate.


  • Appropriate use of biocontainment procedures is necessary throughout all steps of the C&D process.
  • CFIA staff will be available to provide guidance on all aspects of the C&D process.
  • CFIA may require additional formal inspection throughout the C&D process.

Additional information