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Water for use in the preparation of food


What is potable water?

Potable water is water is safe to drink. Water is safe to drink when it meets the health-based guidelines set out in Health Canada's document Guidelines for Canadians Drinking Water Quality – Summary Table.

What is water suitable for intended use?

Water which is determined, through an assessment of risk, to be safe when used as intended.

Water is an important input at all stages of the food chain, from primary production to consumption. It's used in diverse ways, for many different reasons and can come in direct or indirect contact with a food. When preparing food, water is commonly used:

Operators should have, in their establishments, a supply of water that is safe, appropriate for the intended use and of a quantity and pressure sufficient for the operational needs. You should consider the state of the water you use for processing, as potable or non-potable, and its suitability for the intended use. The suitability of water is determined by doing a thorough assessment of the hazards it presents and the risk of contamination to a food.

In Canada, provincial, territorial and municipal governments are generally responsible for ensuring water supplies are safe. The federal government has a number of responsibilities as well. The Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water established the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality (GCDWQ). The guidelines provide the rationale for safe water, along with microbiological, radiological and chemical safety parameters. The document From Source to Tap: Guidance on the Multi-Barrier Approach to Safe Drinking Water is another useful resource that provides all operators of a water supply with a risk-based management plan for producing potable water – covering water supply, from source to tap.


The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) created this document as guidance to help food businesses comply with the requirements set out in the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations.

It's your choice

You may use other guidance developed by provincial governments, industry associations, international partners or academic bodies as long as they can achieve the outcomes identified in the regulations. Always ensure that the guidance you choose is relevant for your particular business, product or products, and market requirements.

What is included

There is a significant amount of information available on the safety of water: its source, use, sampling and testing. This document summarizes some of that information and outlines recommended practices that can help to prevent the risk of contamination of a food by the water you use in your establishment. The document provides information on:

Refer to the Tell me more! section for additional sources of information that may help you ensure the sources of water you use are safe for the intended purpose.

What is not included

While this document provides information on the suitability of water, it is not exhaustive – the suitability of water and the preventive control measures needed will depend on the size and complexity of the food business and be unique for each business.

This document does not address:

You can find information on

Roles and responsibilities

Food businesses are responsible for complying with the law. They demonstrate compliance by ensuring that the commodities and processes for which they are responsible meet regulatory requirements.

The CFIA verifies the compliance of a food business by conducting activities that include inspection, and surveillance. When non-compliance is identified, the CFIA takes appropriate compliance and enforcement actions.

Water for use in the preparation of food

The water used in the preparation of a food should never compromise the safety of the food. Its diverse uses and the many ways a food can be exposed or come into contact with the water, present different levels of risk that need to be addressed by different water quality requirements and controls.

For example:

Identify the hazards from water and the risk of contamination they present

You should identify all potential hazards from water that could present a risk of contamination to a food regardless of whether or not you have direct control over the hazard or its source. This will help you determine:

Ask yourself the following when assessing the safety of water for its intended use:

  1. Is the water potentially contaminated with chemical and/or biological hazards at a concentration with health significance?
    • If no, it is safe
    • If yes, it is unsafe, go to question 2
  2. Will the water potentially contaminated with chemical and/or biological hazards come in direct or indirect contact with the food?
    • If no, it is safe
    • If yes, it is unsafe, go to question 3
  3. Will the water potentially contaminated with chemical and/or biological hazards be treated to eliminate or significantly reduce these hazards before it comes in contact, directly or indirectly, with the food?
    • If yes, it is safe
    • If no, it is unsafe

The hazard analysis will help you determine the need to put in place additional water treatments such as filtration or disinfection systems or use a different water source in order to prevent contamination of a food.

Water sources

The water you use may come from:

Groundwater wells

Groundwater wells are required to meet provincial or municipal requirements in regards to the separation of the water supply from potential sources of pollution (such as private sewage systems or wastewater storage lagoons). This can affect their location, construction and commissioning. If you use a private water source or supply, incorporate a protection and monitoring plan for the water source into your multi-barrier approach to water safety. More information can be found in the From Source to Tap: Guidance on the Multi-Barrier Approach to Safe Drinking Water.

Note: In a multi-barrier approach, the barriers are cumulative and work together to make the water suitable for its intended use. The barriers can be physical (such as a filtration system), or they can be processes or tools that improve the overall management of a treatment water system.

Municipal and public water distribution systems

Water used in an establishment is often sourced from locally or municipally controlled water sources.

You should retain a record of the analysis results for source water from the municipality. Usually, water that has been treated by a municipality is of high quality before entering the distribution system but the microbiological and chemical constituents in the water can vary.

It is important to keep in mind that municipal and public water quality has the potential to deteriorate for many reasons:

Water from a private water source

Private water sources are sources operated independently from a municipal water supply that can be described as surface water, ground water, or ground water under the influence of surface water.

Naturally occurring hazards such as minerals like iron, manganese and calcium can be pre-existing in a water supply and may need to be removed. Hazards may also be seasonal or temporary as a result of flooding or power system failures for example.

Potential sources of contamination for a private water source include:

A hazard can often be prevented or eliminated by applying a specific water treatment.

The design, construction, and operation of treatment systems are detailed in various provincial guidelines and are outlined in the document From Source to Tap: Guidance on the Multi-Barrier Approach to Safe Drinking Water.

Tip: Your local municipal and provincial guidelines and regulations apply to the design, construction, commission, licence, operation and maintenance of all private water sources.

Reclaimed and reused water

Reusing and reclaiming water helps conserve water and is a more efficient use of the available water resources.

You should treat and maintain water that is to be reused in a manner that will not increase the risk of contamination of a food.

When using reclaimed water or reusing water, consider the following:

Ongoing assessment of the water's suitability for use

You should monitor the level of contamination of the source water before treatment on an ongoing basis.

Water test results may be available from the municipality however you should still sample and test the incoming source water to ensure its safety. Testing should be done at an accredited laboratory using appropriate testing methodologies.

Microbiological testing

The water entering the establishment should meet the requirements of the official government body having jurisdiction. The water supply should be analyzed at least once per year to confirm its microbiological safety.

In order to conduct a microbiological assessment of the source water, samples need to be taken before the water receives any treatment, such as before the point of chlorination, filtration or water softening.

Note: It is not acceptable for the person taking the sample to request that the water treatment be temporarily stopped in order to obtain an untreated water sample from a tap, or any other sampling site downstream of the site of establishment's water treatment device. Allowing untreated water to flow through the establishments plumbing system downstream of the water treatment site may result in contamination of the plumbing and the establishment.

If the evaluation of the source water identifies that the incoming water needs to be disinfected or treated:

Chemical testing

The range of chemical analysis depends on local conditions, such as geological formation, seepage from soil treated with fertilizers, pesticides or local exposure to industrial pollution. To establish the range of tests and when to test, you should consult your provincial environmental authorities.

The guidelines for chemical parameters can be found in Health Canada's Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality.

Food contact water

Although the source water may be acceptable, the safety and quality of food contact water should be subject to ongoing monitoring to ensure its continued safety and acceptability.

Generally, food contact water should be tested, at a minimum, once per month.

You should also visually inspect the water sources, lines, equipment, storage tanks and treatment equipment at a frequency adequate to ensure their safe operation.

Water safety alerts and drinking water advisories

If a municipality's water safety or quality is unacceptable, the local public health unit or other responsible authority may issue boil water advisories or water safety alert/drinking water avoidance advisories.

You should have a measure in place, such as a subscription to an email or phone distribution list, which ensures you get notified when there's a municipal water treatment failure and water advisory. It is your responsibility to ensure that the municipal water supply meets requirements at the point of delivery to the establishment.

Health Canada's Canadian Guidelines for Food Processing During Adverse Water Events provides guidance for appropriate actions to be taken during these events.

Tell me more! Further reading

The following references contain information that helps explain food safety controls, demonstrates how to develop them, and provides examples. The CFIA is not responsible for the content of documents that are created by other government agencies or international sources.

CFIA references

Other references

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