Questions and Answers - Regulatory Controls to Prevent the Entry of Light Brown Apple Moth (LBAM)
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What is light brown apple moth?
LBAM is a pest of significant economic concern for which both Canada and the U.S. regulate host materials from off-continent sources to mitigate the risk of its establishment in North America.
Why is CFIA introducing LBAM control measures now?
Since March 2007, LBAM has been found in 18 counties in California, a region from which Canada imports approximately $1 billion annually in LBAM host materials. The CFIA has introduced the regulatory controls to prevent the introduction of LBAM into Canada.
If LBAM were to establish in Canada, many millions of dollars of exports to other countries could be affected.
How much in Canadian exports could be affected by LBAM?
Canada exports over $2.7 billion in LBAM host materials worldwide annually, some of which are shipped to countries that regulate LBAM hosts. This includes fresh produce and plants.
By preventing the introduction of LBAM to Canada through these import requirements, there will be no impact on the export of LBAM host materials from Canada.
What kinds of plants act as host materials for LBAM?
Over 250 plant species are known to be hosts of LBAM. These include berries, stone fruits (peaches, cherries, etc.) and pome fruits (apples, pears, etc.); many vegetables; some forage crops; various weeds; ornamental, nursery and greenhouse plants; cut flowers; and numerous forest tree species.
What are high-risk host materials?
The CFIA considers that the following hosts pose a high risk: cut flowers, greenhouse plants and nursery stock. Cole crops (cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, etc.), carrots with tops, tomatoes and table grapes also pose a risk.
How much produce does Canada import from California that could be affected by LBAM?
In 2005, Canada imported approximately $1 billion in LBAM host materials from the state of California. This includes fresh produce and plants.
Why are special regulatory controls being implemented for the importation of LBAM host materials to British Columbia?
Due to the warmer climate of southern British Columbia, it is believed that LBAM would be able to over-winter in this area. The risk of it multiplying if it were introduced is much greater than in other areas of Canada, where the pest would not survive the colder winters.
Have any other countries introduced similar regulatory controls?
On May 14, 2007, Mexico released new regulations that prohibit the entry of certain LBAM host material into Mexico from all infested counties in California and the entire state of Hawaii. From all other counties in California, Mexico requires a Phytosanitary Certificate stating that all LBAM host material was inspected and found free of LBAM.
Has LBAM been found in Canada?
No. LBAM has not been found in Canada.
Where else has LBAM been found?
In addition to California, LBAM is present in Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Hawaii, and in parts of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Has the United States implemented control measures for LBAM?
On May 2, 2007, the USDA implemented a Federal Order that regulates the interstate and intrastate movement of LBAM host material originating within the regulated areas of California and the entire state of Hawaii.
The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is working with the California Department of Food and Agriculture to develop control strategies to prevent damage to crops and to prevent further spread of the pest.
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