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D-18-01: Phytosanitary requirements for imported small fruit propagative material

Effective date: February 15, 2021
(2nd revision)

Subject

This directive provides the phytosanitary requirements that must be met by small fruit plants intended for fruit production or further propagation, before they can be imported into Canada. This directive covers the requirements for Fragaria, Rubus, and Ribes species (spp.) from various origins.

As part of this revision, the following changes were made:

This document supersedes all previous versions of directive D-18-01.

On this page

1.0 Legislative authority

Plant Protection Act (S.C. 1990, c. 22)

Plant Protection Regulations (SOR/95-212)

Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)

2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions of terms used in this document can be found in the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 5: Glossary of phytosanitary terms or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA's) Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

The term "indexing" refers to a diagnostic procedure which uses plant material or its extracts to determine the presence or absence of 1 or more pests in the plant material.

3.0 Introduction

The international trade of propagative plant material is a pathway that poses a high risk for the movement of quarantine plant pests. Several of these pests are known to affect small fruit crops that are grown in Canada, such as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and currants.

If pests that affect these small fruit crops were to establish in Canada, there could be detrimental effects on plant and fruit quality, in addition to jeopardizing Canada's export markets.

This directive outlines the phytosanitary requirements that must be met in order to mitigate the risk of pests of concern being imported with small fruit plant material that will be used for propagation.

4.0 Scope

4.1 Regulated pests

Material must be free from all regulated pests of Canada. See the list of pests regulated by Canada for more information.

Appendix 1 provides a more specific list of pests regulated by Canada which can be associated with small fruit propagative plant material. This list is not exhaustive.

4.2 Regulated articles

4.3 Articles outside the scope of this directive

Note: Additional requirements for these articles may exist in other directives. Please consult the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) for more information.

4.4 Regulated areas

5.0 Import requirements

Regulated articles must meet the applicable requirements of D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting, in addition to the requirements listed in this directive. Imported material is subject to inspection upon arrival to Canada.

5.1 Commodities and origins that are currently approved for import

To obtain the phytosanitary import requirements for propagative material of a genus of small fruit, including the origin(s) from which it is approved, please refer to the appropriate appendix below:

For small fruit propagative material that is not listed in the appendices above, please consult the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for details.

5.2 Commodities and origins that are not currently approved for import

New products or products from new origins typically must undergo a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) prior to commercial importation. See Pest Risk Analysis: New fruits, vegetables and plants from new countries of origin for more information.

Regulated articles that are not approved for import for other purposes may be allowed to be imported for scientific research, educational, processing, industrial, or exhibition purposes. Contact your local CFIA office for more information.

5.3 Post entry quarantine testing

The CFIA Centre for Plant Health – Sidney Laboratory offers a limited amount of Post Entry Quarantine (PEQ) testing for Fragaria spp. and Rubus spp. originating from unapproved sources. Due to the nature of the virus and phytoplasma testing offered, this service is seasonal in nature (samples must be imported between January and April) and dependent on laboratory capacity. After material has undergone the required testing and produced acceptable results, it is eligible for release to the importer for further propagation. Importers who wish to use this option are encouraged to contact the Sidney Laboratory or their local CFIA office well in advance of any potential import to discuss the availability of this option.

6.0 Non-compliance

Imported articles may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet requirements when they arrive at their first point of entry into Canada. Articles that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada and will be ordered removed from the country or destroyed. Infested articles may be ordered to be treated prior to disposal or removal, to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the articles, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken. The CFIA will advise the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the country of origin or re-exporting country of non-compliance as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.

7.0 References

7.1 Fees

The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees, please contact your local CFIA office or visit the CFIA's Fees Notice website.

7.2 Supporting documents

Automated Import Reference System (AIRS)

D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting

D-11-01: Phytosanitary Requirements for Plants for Planting and Fresh Branches to Prevent the Entry and Spread of Anoplophora spp.

D-13-03: Phytosanitary import requirements to prevent the introduction of Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth

D-14-03: Phytosanitary import requirements for fresh and dried branches, cut flowers and other plant parts for ornamental purposes

D-95-08: Phytosanitary import requirements for fresh temperate fruits and tree nuts

Pest Risk Analysis: New fruits, vegetables and plants from new countries of origin

RMD-09-01: Rubus stunt phytoplasma (RSP), the cause of Rubus stunt disease

7.3 Directives superseded by D-18-01

D-94-18: Importation of Propagative Material of Ribes spp.

Appendix 1: quarantine pests of particular concern for imported small fruit propagative material

Imported material must be free from pests regulated by Canada. The lists below contain pests which may be associated with each genus of regulated small fruit plants and are of particular concern. These lists are not exhaustive. Acceptable risk management options may include country freedom or specific certification measures. Additional details on import requirements can be found in each of the commodity-specific appendices below.

1.1 Pests associated with Fragaria spp.

1.2 Pests associated with Ribes spp.

1.3 Pests associated with Rubus spp.

Appendix 2: phytosanitary import requirements for propagative plant material of Fragaria spp.

Propagative plant material of Fragaria spp. (other than seed) is permitted to enter Canada only if it originates from the continental United States or the Netherlands. Material that originates from any other country is "Not Authorised Pending a Pest Risk Analysis" (NAPPRA) and is prohibited from entering Canada regardless of whether it spends any length of time in an approved country. See section 5.2 for more information and options for commodities and origins that are not approved for import or contact your local CFIA office for more information.

Regulated articles must meet the requirements outlined in this directive and any other requirements specified in the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS). Origin-specific requirements are outlined below. Imported material is subject to inspection upon arrival to Canada.

2.1 Fragaria spp. propagative plant material from the continental United States

An Permit to Import is not required.

A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Material may be imported with or without roots and with or without soil, and must meet the applicable requirements of D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting.

2.2 Fragaria spp. propagative plant material from the Netherlands

A Permit to Import is required.

A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Material must be free from soil and soil-related matter, and must meet the applicable requirements of D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting.

Material must be produced under the EPPO standard PM 4/11 (2) certification scheme for strawberry.

The phytosanitary certificate must include the following additional declaration: "The plants in this consignment were produced under the EPPO standard PM 4/11 (2) certification scheme for strawberry".

Appendix 3: phytosanitary import requirements for propagative plant material of Ribes spp.

Propagative plant material of Ribes spp. (other than seed) is permitted to enter Canada only if it originates from the continental United States. Material that originates from any other country is "Not Authorised Pending a Pest Risk Analysis" (NAPPRA) and is prohibited from entering Canada regardless of whether it spends any length of time in an approved country. See section 5.2 for more information and options for commodities and origins that are not approved for import or contact your local CFIA office for more information.

Regulated articles must meet the requirements outlined in this directive and any other requirements specified in the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS). Origin-specific requirements are outlined below. Imported material is subject to inspection upon arrival to Canada.

3.1 Ribes spp. propagative plant material from the continental United States

A Permit to Import is not required.

A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Material may be imported with or without roots and with or without soil, and must meet the applicable requirements of D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting.

Appendix 4: phytosanitary import requirements for propagative plant material of Rubus spp.

Propagative plant material of Rubus spp. (other than seed) is permitted to enter Canada only if it originates from the continental United States, Netherlands, or Germany. Material that originates from any other country is prohibited from entering Canada regardless of whether it spends any length of time in an approved country. See section 5.2 for more information and options for commodities and origins that are not approved for import or contact your local CFIA office for more information.

Regulated articles must meet the import requirements outlined in this directive and any other requirements specified in the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS). Origin-specific requirements are outlined below. Imported material is subject to inspection upon arrival to Canada.

4.1 Rubus spp. propagative plant material from the continental United States

A Permit to Import is not required.

A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Material may be imported with or without roots and with or without soil, and must meet the applicable requirements of D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting.

The National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the country of origin must find regulated articles to be free of Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (Rubus stunt phytoplasma) based on visual examination and indexing of the imported plants or their parental stock.

The accompanying phytosanitary certificate must include one of the following additional declarations:

  1. "The plants were derived from mother plants that were indexed and found free from Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (Rubus stunt phytoplasma)."; or
  2. "The plants were indexed and found free from Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (Rubus stunt phytoplasma)."

Indexing procedures authorized by the CFIA for Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (Rubus stunt phytoplasma) are graft transmission of the pest to an indicator host appropriate for Rubus stunt phytoplasma followed by visual monitoring of the indicator host for 12 months, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), or another procedure approved by the CFIA.

4.2 Rubus spp. propagative plant material from the Netherlands or Germany

A Permit to Import is required.

A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Material must be free from soil and soil-related matter, and must meet the applicable requirements of D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting.

The National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the country of origin must find regulated articles to be free of Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (Rubus stunt phytoplasma) based on visual examination and indexing of the imported plants or their parental stock.

The accompanying phytosanitary certificate must include one of the following additional declarations:

  1. "The plants were derived from mother plants that were indexed and found free from Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (Rubus stunt phytoplasma)."; or
  2. "The plants were indexed and found free from Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (Rubus stunt phytoplasma)."

Indexing procedures authorized by the CFIA for Candidatus Phytoplasma rubi (Rubus stunt phytoplasma) are graft transmission of the pest to an indicator host appropriate for Rubus stunt phytoplasma followed by visual monitoring of the indicator host for 12 months, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR (qPCR), or another procedure approved by the CFIA.

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