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PI-008: Inspecting Ships that Carry Grain and Grain Products for Export

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The contact for the review will be assigned by the National Manager, Grains and Oilseeds Section.


This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).


Approved by

Greg Wolff, Chief Plant Health Officer



The current version of PI-008 is available on the CFIA website.

In addition, the signed original will be maintained in the Project Coordinator's office.


Grain and grain products (including cereals, oilseeds, pulses and their processed products) exported from Canada are primarily shipped in the holds of ocean going ships. The CFIA's objective when inspecting ship holds is to verify their phytosanitary status prior to loading Canadian grain and to approve the ship for loading.

1.0 Scope

This document specifies the procedures inspectors must follow to inspect ships or lakers that load grain or grain products for export. PI-008 does not specify general roles and responsibilities of inspectors. These roles and responsibilities are outlined in documents such as memorandum of understanding, internal work plans, safety manuals, or other arrangements between the CFIA and inspectors.

2.0 References

The legislative documents listed below are available at the Department of Justice Canada website:

The CFIA documents listed below are available:

Freeman, J.A. (1948). World foci of infestation and principal channels of dissemination to other points, with suggestions for detection and standards of inspection. Preservation of Grains in Storage, pp. 15-34. Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Washington, U.S.A.

3.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

4.0 Health and safety

4.1 General considerations

Ship inspections are carried out in hazardous environments. Inspectors shall be aware of potential hazards at all times and proceed with inspections keeping these hazards in mind. Inspectors are responsible to:

Inspectors may be immunized against diseases such as typhoid, tetanus, tuberculosis, and Hepatitis A and B. Consult with your supervisor for local policy and procedures.

The work is routinely done at heights and involves climbing stairways, gangways, ladders and other ship structures. As such the inspector must be physically able to perform these tasks and be comfortable working at heights. Inspectors entering holds must be trained in fall arrest and first aid. Additional training and certification may be necessary depending on area requirements. Each Area should have specific safe work procedures in place to ensure the safety of the CFIA employees who are conducting ship inspections.

Inspectors can be exposed to various environmental factors such as heat, rain and snow during the course of ship inspection. This in turn translates into body heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction and convection. Inspectors should keep hydrated during inspections considering the physical effort and environmental exposures applied.

A generic Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) has been developed and can be obtained from CFIA Area Occupational Health and Safety (OSH) advisors. The JHA should be reviewed by all staff working on or around ships.

4.2 Required safety equipment

4.3 Confined space entry

Should a confined space entry be required, inspectors are to refer their Area specific safe work procedures and the Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations for confined space entry compliance requirements.

4.4 Accidents

In case of an accident, seek first aid treatment immediately. Report the injury to your supervisor, a CFIA OSH representative, and a representative of the shipping firm or the ship owners(ship's agent). If there is any possibility of complication or if a secondary treatment is necessary, go to the emergency facilities of the nearest hospital. A Hazardous Occurrence Investigation and Report Hazardous Occurrence Investigation Report - CFIA/ACIA 0345 - (Internal access only) form is to be completed by the OSH representative and submitted to the inspection supervisor. The supervisor may request medical examination before the inspector can return to work duties.

4.5 Exposure to hazardous substances

If an inspector suspects that they have been exposed to toxins, they should inform their fellow inspector about their concerns and seek medical help immediately. Inspectors should attempt to find out the name of the toxin they or their fellow inspector may have been exposed to and try to obtain a label that could be sent to the hospital with them. Effects of the toxin may not be noticed until sometime after the exposure.

Whenever possible, the inspector should try to confirm the previous contents the ship carried before going out to inspect it. If the ship transported a compound or chemical (fuel, etc.), inspectors should ask the ship's officers or captain the exact name in order to determine the health hazards associated prior to inspecting the holds. Inspectors should also verify if any chemical treatments have been applied into the holds prior to arrival. Inspectors can refer to their supervisor, an Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) representative, or Material Safety Data sheets (MSDS) in order to determine if the holds are safe to enter.

5.0 Ship inspection: general information

5.1 Basic inspection equipment

The following list includes inspection equipment that are commonly used by ship inspectors across Canada.

5.2 Ship structure

The predominant type of ship to load grain is the bulk carrier or laker. Occasionally, bulk carrier type ships are modified with holds which can be separated into two or more smaller holds by means of one or more movable horizontal partitions (tween decks); wing tanks (paired tanks on either side of a centre tank and filled with either ballast or commodities); reefer holds and other adaptations to load grain. On rare occasions, tanker carriers also load grain.

5.3 Places frequently found infested

The following is a list of structures and places where cargo residues accumulate and infestation develops. All of these places should be checked for cargo residues:

6.0 Ship inspection: procedures

Inspectors shall inspect ships as specified in this document. To inspect a ship, it is recommended that the inspector:

6.1 Inspection requests

The ship's agent (a representative for the shipping firm or ship owner who is hired to expedite the arrival, discharge and loading of the ship and positioning it for the next voyage) is responsible for requesting a ship inspection by the CFIA at a time when all of the holds to be loaded with grain or grain products are ready for inspection. The agent must complete the Request for Ship Inspection (CFIA/ACIA 5414) and provide all information requested on the form. The agent can fax the completed, signed form to the local CFIA office. Area management will determine lead time and hours of service. Ship inspections should only be conducted during daylight hours unless Area Operations management has approved night time inspections.

The ship's agent must arrange for the ship to be configured in "ready to load" position and make arrangements for the hatches to be opened prior to the inspection. The ship's agent must also notify the ship personnel that equipment, such as ladders be available for inspectors to use during the inspection. The hydraulic system of the hatch covers must be functional and, if necessary, snow should be removed from hatch opening systems during winter months.

6.2 Planning inspections

The inspector shall check their local files for reports of previous inspections of the ship and check for previous names the ship might have had. The inspector shall also verify their equipment to make sure all the necessary tools are packed and in good working condition.

6.3 Ship boarding

Inspectors shall be at the requested location to commence inspection as close to the scheduled inspection time as possible. If delays are expected, the ship's agent must be notified as soon as possible. Upon boarding, the inspectors shall identify themselves to ship personnel (captain, chief officer, or a cargo officer) stating the purpose of their visit and request their assistance to expedite the inspection process.

The Request for Ship Inspection (CFIA/ACIA 5414) form should confirm, and attested to by the ship's agent, that the gangway has been properly maintained. When boarding a ship alongside, follow Area procedures for safe boarding practices. When boarding a ship at anchorage, use caution when transferring from the water taxi/launch boat onto the gangway. If necessary, the inspector may request that the hauling line be lowered to lift ship inspection equipment onto the deck. In inclement weather, the inspector has the discretion to either call off or cut short the inspection in order to safely embark or disembark from the ship.

6.4 Pre-inspection meeting

The inspector should request to be taken to the ship's office to begin the paperwork and meet with the chief officer. The inspector shall fill in all pertinent information on the Ship Inspection Report - CFIA/ACIA 1309 - (Internal access only). Much of this information will be found on the Request for Ship Inspection (CFIA/ACIA 5414) form. However, it is advisable to verify this information when meeting with ship's chief officer (or captain) and agent onboard the ship. Important information to verify includes, but is not limited to.

For each hold to be inspected, prior to the inspector entering the hold, hatch covers must be at least partially opened to allow for adequate ventilation, light and room for the inspector to carry out his or her duties. If a hold or void space has been recently treated or sprayed, the inspector should verify the hold has been ventilated and is safe to enter. If the hold has not been ventilated the inspector may cancel and reschedule the inspection. A cancellation in such a manner is still to be invoiced as it is the agent's responsibility to make sure that the ship is ready for inspection.

Inspectors must be accompanied by a ship's officer when inspecting holds. It is advisable to request that an officer with a working knowledge of English or French accompany the inspector and that a crew be on standby for any cleaning or scaling that may be required. Holds are cleared (indicating the phytosanitary condition of the empty hold is suitable to load grain and grain products) more frequently during re-inspection if a ship's officer has accompanied the inspector during the initial inspection and seen the areas requiring treatment or cleaning.

Working equipment shall not be operated over the empty holds while inspection is taking place. Also, the ship shall not be shifted while the inspection of the holds is being conducted. It should be noted that it is the inspector's responsibility to ensure that they are familiar with their own Area's safe work procedures.

6.5 Inspection standards

These standards will serve as a guideline to inspectors for making decisions on the actions required before a Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 - (Internal access only) form will be issued. The following standards are based on grain insect finds only. If non-grain infesting insects are found exclusively, then some action such as cleaning or localized spraying may be required depending on the species and numbers found.

If "few" insects are found repeatedly in the same area then a thorough search should be made to find the source of the infestation and order appropriate cleaning and treatment. Normally fumigation would not be performed when only a very small number of insects are found. If khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium) is found, fumigation is mandatory as this is a quarantine pest of concern to Canada.

Since Trogoderma species are difficult to identify, the specimen should be sent to the Ottawa Plant Laboratory (Central Experimental Farm) - Entomology for identification. If a suspect khapra beetle is found, two options can be offered to the owner or agent of the ship. The first would be to order immediate fumigation or alternatively, the ship could wait until identification, negative for khapra beetle, is received from the lab. For either option, a Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 cannot be issued until fumigation is completed or a negative identification returns. Either option will result in a delay of clearance of at least 24 hours to several days.

Situations may vary that will impact the inspector's decision. In all cases, full inspection of the hold should be conducted to determine the source of any infestation. If pests found are identified as quarantine significance to the importing country, the National Manager, Grains and Oilseeds should be advised.

Table 1- Inspection standard for insect interceptions (based on Freeman, 1948)

The following table indicates the inspection standard relevant to ship inspection exercises for insect interceptions
Standard Population level Insect distribution in hold
Clear or very few (unless khapra beetle) ≤3 insects found in the hold over the course of a prolonged search Less then 3 insects found in the hold over the course of a prolonged search No treatment (unless khapra beetle found)
Few Insects found generally in groups of 1-3, over the course of a prolonged search in the hold Insects found generally in groups of 1-3, over the course of a prolonged search in the hold Localized or, if necessary, general chemical treatment of the hold
Heavy Insects obvious or occurring regularly and frequently in the hold Insects obvious or occurring regularly and frequently in the hold Chemical treatment throughout the hold

The inspector should decide if the hold must be cleaned before a thorough inspection is possible or that actions are to be taken before leaving the hold. For instance, cleaning and scaling may be required before an infestation can be detected or properly assessed, and this must be identified by the inspector.

6.6 Lighting

If the inspector feels there is insufficient light to conduct the inspection, they should request that cargo lights be placed into the holds to assist with the inspection. Adequate light is important for proper evaluation of the hold conditions.

6.7 Ascending and descending

The inspector should always ask the ship's officer accompanying them to descend and ascend the hold first. This is an important safety measure because by observing the way a ship's officer ascends or descends on a ladder will assist the inspector in determining the safety and stability of the ladder. Safety requirements for ascending and descending specific to the CFIA Area should be followed; this includes using fall arrest and securing inspection equipment during climbing.

If holds are equipped with ladders on opposite sides it is recommended that the inspector use one ladder to descend into the hold and ascend from the hold using the other ladder. Certain conditions of some holds and/or ladder may require that the inspector use only one ladder. By using both ladders, the inspector has the capacity to examine both sides of the upper structure to determine if there is a problem and if corrective actions are required.

As the inspector enters the hold they must keep in mind the places most frequently found infested and inspect as many of these places as possible. The inspector shall do this by viewing the upper structures from the ladder as they descend, stopping at various levels so that they can adequately assess the areas. The most common styles of ladder in cargo holds are the straight or vertical, ladder and the Australian ladder (a spiral or inclined ladder made of a set of stairs broken up by ladders or platforms).

6.8 Inspection of tank top

The inspection continues at the tank top level, with the inspector examining the tank top, the bulkheads and the sides from the tank top. If there are areas that cannot be adequately assessed from the tank top, then the inspector may choose to ascend the sloping sides or bulkheads, keeping in mind all safety precautions as outlined in the job hazard analysis. Once the inspector is satisfied that they have adequately assessed the lower hold and collected samples if appropriate, then the inspection continues with final evaluation of the upper hold structures as the inspector ascends the opposite ladder. If, during ascension, the inspector has material knocked down for examination, they shall return to the tank top to examine the material and/or to take samples.

6.9 Encountering old cargo or residue

If old cargo or residues are encountered during the course of a ship inspection, they should be collected and examined for the presence of insects. All types of grain products or residue should be inspected due to differing survival conditions required by different pests.

If the inspector suspects that, or is unable to determine if, there are insects present in the grain residue, a sample of material should be collected. If possible, the samples collected should be approximately 1 kg, but can be as small as necessary to collect infested material or previous cargo present in small quantities.

Ship inspectors should carry a copy of a stored product pest identification book to assist with initial identification. If official identification is required, samples should be submitted to the CFIA Ottawa Plant Laboratory - Entomology. The inspector should follow the written procedures for preparing and submitting specimens.

Samples can be comprised of individual insects found without grain residue present or grain residues collected from affected areas of the hold. Special attention should be paid to areas frequently found with old residues (Section 5.3) and from other areas with evidence of insect infestation. If preliminary identification of insects is conducted on the ship, the inspector should make sure that any insects are warmed in the inspector's hand for a minute or more, depending on the temperature, before it is determined if they are alive or dead.

If the inspector suspects an infestation but cannot confirm it on site, the samples can be taken for testing with a Berlese funnel. These samples should be run according to the Berlese funnel manufacturer's specifications for at least six hours. Samples that are wet or damp may require additional run time.

6.9.1 Extraneous materials

Extraneous material (anything other than the commodity to be loaded) in the ship's hold, including residues from previously loaded commodities, rust and paint scale and general debris, can harbour pests that have the potential to infest grain and grain products once loaded for export. As outlined in the Plant Protection Act, a CFIA inspector can request movement of the ship as well as cleaning, treatment, removal or disposal of extraneous material in the hold that poses a phytosanitary risk, or if the extraneous material impedes the complete inspection of the hold or area for phytosanitary risks. The inspector should issue a Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 - (Internal access only) form noting the deficiencies and follow-up action that will be required.

When extraneous material is present but the inspector is confident that it does not present a phytosanitary risk, the inspector should pass this information on to the port warden and recommend they order cleanup of the matter before allowing the ship to be loaded. This recommendation can either be relayed verbally or documented on the Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 - (Internal access only).

6.10 Inspection of self unloading lakers

These inspection procedures also apply to self-unloading lakers. The inspection is mandatory for self-unloading lakers destined to a foreign port (for example, U.S. ports). Self-unloading lakers have additional equipment (for example, conveyors, belts, hoppers, and a discharge boom) that will need to be inspected.

6.11 Inspection of partially loaded holds

The hold is inspected in the same manner as is described for inspection of empty holds except that the inspector must walk on the top of the grain mass present in the hold in order to inspect the remaining portion of the hold. Inspectors should always be cautious when walking on top of any grain as shifting of the cargo can occur.

6.11.1 Top inspection

A top inspection is an examination of the upper structures, performed in the later stages of loading, when the grain is at a sufficient height for the inspector to walk on the surface of the grain cargo and view the beams and structures at close range. If the sanitary condition of the upper structures or beams cannot be adequately evaluated in the initial inspection, a top inspection is required.

An inspector must seek the cooperation of the ship's agent, the captain and the stevedoring company (company hired to load, discharge and clean ships) in order to be advised of the approximate time that the cargo in the loading hold will reach the desired height for top inspection (high enough to permit the inspector to walk on the surface of the grain and view the conditions of the structures beneath the deck). At this time, the loading of the hold must be interrupted under the authority of the Plant Protection Regulations, section 58 (2)(a), to allow the inspector to safely carry out the inspection. The request to interrupt loading should be made to the foreman or supervisor of the loading crew. In the event that loading has not stopped as prescribed, the inspector can order offloading of enough grain so as to be able to properly assess the top structures of the hold.

It is not always necessary for all holds to have a top inspection. Inspecting two or three holds can give the inspectors sufficient information as to the conditions existing in the remaining holds and to approve the loading of the other holds or to require treatments. However, should the inspector not feel comfortable with looking at only a few holds or noted that there was variability between holds when doing the initial inspection, then all holds should be inspected.

If the upper structures of the hold need to be cleaned, dried, scaled or treated following a top inspection, the inspector will issue the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 - (Internal access only) which outlines the details of the work required for the ship to be approved. If the top inspection reveals nothing, then the inspector will issue a Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 - (Internal access only) specifying that the loading can continue. If the inspector feels that it would be beneficial as a precautionary measure, the top of the grain can also be sprayed (the Pest Control Product label must indicate that this is an approved product usage). In extreme situations where heavy and general infestation is found, complete discharging of the cargo and treatment of the grain in the elevator and treatment of all holds of the ship may be required to ensure that no infestation of the cargo has occurred.

Should an inspector be advised that a ship that requires a top inspection is moving to another Canadian port, they should find out where the ship is going and then inform the local CFIA ship inspector or office about what action has been done and what type of inspection is still required on the ship.

6.11.2 Holds that are partially loaded with grain of foreign origin

For holds partially loaded with grain of foreign origin and where the remainder of the hold will be loaded with Canadian grain, an inspection will be done of the upper structures as well as of the grain of foreign origin for any insect infestation.

During the inspection, a minimum of two composite samples of the loaded cargo shall be taken per hold inspected, in addition to any residue samples that the inspector might take from the ship structures. Samples of the loaded cargo can be collected by walking on the surface of the grain and hand scooping the grain into a plastic bag. The preferred sampling method is to collect several primary samples from the corners of the hold and where grain depressions occur, where insects can accumulate, to make the 2 composite samples. The samples collected from the holds should be labelled with ship name, date, cargo, origin, destination, and exporter. If an infestation is suspected, the inspector should run the samples on the Berlese funnel following the same method noted in Section 6.11.1. Clearance for the hold(s) will not be given until after the results from the Berlese test are read. If the inspector does not suspect an infestation, the samples should be stored, without Berlese testing, in the local office for 120 days.

A separation on top of grain of foreign origin is only enforced by the CFIA when it is required by the official phytosanitary authorities of the importing country. For the efficacy of inspection and sampling, and if a separation will be put in, it is recommended that the separation be installed after inspection and the samples have been deemed free of pests.

6.11.3 Infestation of holds that are partially loaded with grain of foreign origin

If residue found in the upper structures of the hold is infested, but results of the samples of grain of foreign origin indicate that the existing cargo is not infested, corrective actions to address the upper structures or residues found must be specified on a Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 - (Internal access only) form. All corrective actions (for example, cleaning, treatment) must be completed before the hold can be passed and loading can commence. During the cleaning procedures, all efforts should be made to mitigate the contamination of grain (that is, a tarpaulin can be placed on top of the grain beneath the structure to be cleaned), before the cleaning commences. Unloading of the cargo can be provided as an alternative corrective action.

If the grain of foreign origin is infested, the inspector will issue the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 form ordering fumigation treatment of the cargo. The inspector should recommend that there be limited entry into the hold (except for the fumigator and their assistants) until the fumigation process has been completed (to mitigate the risk of cross-contamination between holds).

The cargo may be sampled post-treatment by the fumigator upon request by the CFIA inspector to verify the effectiveness of the treatment prior to the hold being passed. Inspectors should not enter a partially loaded hold that has received fumigation treatment. Follow safe work procedures as outlined by your area supervisors and OSH representatives.

7.0 Ship inspection: results and decision

When the hold inspections are complete, the inspector shall discuss the inspection results with the ship's agent and the ship's officer/captain. All treatments (cleaning and/or insect control measures) and subsequent inspections prescribed by the inspector shall be discussed with the aforementioned parties.

The inspector shall issue a Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 - (Internal access only), a Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 - (Internal access only), or a combination of the two forms for different holds inspected. These forms shall accurately and clearly convey the conditions of the holds at the time of inspection. If holds were not made available or not ready for inspection, no documentation should be issued on them.

Approved holds can either be "cleared" or "passed". Holds shall be "cleared", when the entire area has been examined (for example, empty holds). Holds shall be "passed", when the complete area has not been examined because there is existing cargo in the hold (for example, a hold partially loaded with grain of foreign origin).

Any CFIA forms issued must be dated and signed by the inspector and the time indicated in 24 hour clock format. Follow local office procedures for the distribution of the form. The form distribution could include the following parties: master of ship, shipping agent, port warden, stevedore, and elevator. One copy shall be retained by the inspector. A copy of the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 should be retained in the ship inspection file until re-inspection (the second or subsequent examination of the ship). If the re-inspection is being done by another CFIA office a copy should be forwarded to them.

Upon completion of the paperwork, the inspector is not obliged to wait for other officials to complete their business beyond a reasonable period of time as determined by the inspector. If the inspector chooses to leave ahead of the others, the agent will arrange for the launch transportation.

Following the inspection, the inspector shall complete the Ship Inspection Report - CFIA/ACIA 1309 - (Internal access only) form. This report is retained by the inspecting office and details information about the ship and the inspection results. Such records are very helpful for finding out historical information about a ship and for preparing for following inspections. This form is kept in the office which inspected the ship for future reference. In Ontario, all Ship Inspection Reports for lakers are sent to Thunder Bay. This form is available on Desktop eForms.

Fees shall be charged for all ship inspections as per the fees order. Area agreements may allow for additional fees to be charged. Refer to area management for such information.

7.1 Empty holds

7.1.1 Approved for loading

Issuance of the Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 - (Internal access only) form indicates that the inspector is fully satisfied that the sanitary conditions of the holds listed are appropriate to load grain.

When clearing holds that have tween decks, each hold section must be cleared as indicated: for holds with one tween deck the areas must be specified as "lower hold" (LH) and "tween deck" (T/D); for holds with two tween decks the areas must be specified as lower hold (LH), "lower tween deck" (LT/D) and "upper tween deck" (UT/D).

When clearing holds that have a non-permanent wall that has been installed by an overhead crane before the inspection, the two sections of the hold must be cleared or passed as one unit.

For holds requiring a top inspection, the second section of the Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 form must be completed, indicating that the loading of these holds will be interrupted to permit further inspection. Refer to Section 7.2.1 for form completion on partially loaded holds.

7.1.2 Not approved for loading

Issuance of the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 - (Internal access only) form indicates that the sanitary conditions of the holds listed do not meet the minimum standard to load grain. When the inspector has decided that a hold is unsuitable to load grain, the decision and items that need to be rectified will be recorded on the form indicating all corrective actions required (treatment, cleaning, scaling and/or drying) in the specified holds prior to re-inspection. When old cargo residues are ordered to be knocked down from higher structures, the ship's crew should be instructed to leave the residue on the tank top. This will allow the inspector, upon re-inspection, to verify if there is an insect infestation.

Inspectors will not prescribe the specific methods to be used by the ship's crew to bring the hold into compliance (that is, inspectors will not recommend painting). Nor will inspectors name or indicate the application rate of a chemical treatment, the choice of the fumigant or spray must be determined by the licensed Pest Control Operator (PCO). If the ship wishes to do their own spraying, they must provide details on the chemicals they are planning to use before beginning the treatment. Inspectors should verify that the chemical being used is appropriate for the treatment of ship's holds.

7.2 Partially loaded holds

7.2.1 Top inspection

If the upper structures of the hold need to be cleaned, dried, scaled or treated following a top-inspection, the inspector is to issue the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 - (Internal access only) form which outlines the details of the work required for the ship to be cleared.

If the top inspection reveals that:

  1. There is no problem, then the inspector will issue a Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 - (Internal access only) and distribute copies following local office procedures
  2. Minor deficiencies exist, subsequent cleaning can be completed in the presence of an inspector. These would be situations where there is minimal possibility of insects being present. Once the hold is suitable for continued loading, the inspector will issue a Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281
  3. General cleaning is to be performed on the upper structures, then all efforts should be made to mitigate the contamination of grain during the cleaning procedures (that is, a tarpaulin can be placed on top of the grain beneath the structure to be cleaned, before the cleaning commences). Residues shall be collected in buckets. Cleaning is to be finished prior to surface insecticide applications. If cleaning cannot be completed while the inspector is present a Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 will be issued. Once the inspector is satisfied that the hold is suitable to load grain they will issue a Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281
  4. An infestation is found in the upper structures and requires chemical treatment, the ship's crew should first be instructed to perform a general cleaning of the upper structures, taking caution to avoid contamination of the grain (please consult c) above). Local treatment of the upper structures of the hold(s) will then be required. Due to safety concerns with chemicals/fumigants in partially loaded holds, the chemical treatment cannot be completed while the inspector is present, so a Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 must be issued. The treated hold(s) may be cleared once the treatment is complete and the inspector reviews the treatment certificate. Once the inspector is satisfied that the hold is suitable to load grain they will issue a Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281

In all situations where a top inspection has occurred, the inspector should indicate the results of the inspection on the Ship Inspection Report - CFIA/ACIA 1309 - (Internal access only) form.

7.2.2 Holds partially loaded with grain of foreign origin

The inspector should visually inspect the samples collected, in a well-lit area, to assess whether the hold can be passed or to decide on any actions to be taken. If the inspector is reasonably sure that there is no insect infestation in the hold, they may make that decision while still in the hold. The procedure outlined in Section 6.11.1 (Top Inspection) should be followed if the inspector has concerns with the sanitary conditions of the upper structures. If there is any doubt as to the infestation status of the hold or the existing cargo, the inspector shall not pass the hold until the samples have been properly analysed and are found to be negative. The inspector will then issue the Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 - (Internal access only) with the time of the examination in the lab as the passing time.

7.3 Second and subsequent inspections

A follow-up inspection must be conducted after the required treatment or cleaning has been completed. The re-inspection is necessary to ensure that:

The ship's agent must notify the inspection office when the ship is ready for re-inspection. If any holds were fumigated, a fumigation certificate and gas free certificate (see Section 8.0) must be provided to the inspector at the time of re-inspection and before any follow-up inspection can occur. Before an inspector enters a hold that received a chemical treatment, they should be familiar with their area's safe work procedures for entering treated holds.

Inspectors shall verify that all corrective actions detailed in the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 form have been completed and that the treatments were effective. Inspectors should note that where residues have been cleaned up, insects may be more apparent on the second inspection. If the deficiencies identified on the original Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 are still evident during the second inspection, a subsequent inspection will need to be arranged. A new Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 should be issued if a different treatment is required by the inspector to bring the hold into compliance, otherwise the original form is still applicable.

8.0 Chemical treatments

The method of treatment prescribed to control insects on ships will depend on the extent of the infestation, its location, and the structure of the ship. There are two different types of chemical treatments that could be ordered by the inspector: insecticidal sprays and fumigants. The required treatments shall be detailed in the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 - (Internal access only) issued by the inspector.

The inspector must not order the use of a specific pest control product. It is the responsibility of the ship's agent to contact and make arrangements with a licensed Pest Control Operator (PCO) to arrange for the required treatments to be conducted. It is the responsibility of the PCO to use products registered under the Pest Control Products Act and use them as specified on the label.

A re-inspection is conducted by the inspector after a treatment report has been issued by the PCO. If an inspector is able to recover only dead insects following treatment, the inspector may consider that the treatment was effective. In such a case, and when all prescribed conditions detailed on the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 form have been met, the inspector shall issue the Ship Inspection Approval for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1281 - (Internal access only) form. The inspector must be aware that some insects take longer to die than others following treatment (that is, Lepidopteran larvae), for best results, additional time may be needed to allow the chemical to be fully absorbed and kill the pest. In all cases, if the inspector determines that the treatment was not effective, another treatment may be requested.

8.1 Chemical treatment of empty holds

For localized infestations, the areas must be cleaned first, followed by an application of a residual insecticide spray. If the infestation is widespread throughout the hold or there is a heavy population, treatment of the entire hold may be required. The direction to treat will be identified on the Ship Inspection Not Approved for Loading - CFIA/ACIA 1288 - (Internal access only) form.

Once the treatment has been completed, the hold can only be re-inspected once it is declared safe to re-enter by the PCO through the issuance of a pest control operator's report to the CFIA inspector. In the case of fumigation, a gas free certification must also be made on the treatment report by the PCO and presented to the CFIA inspector on the ship prior to re-inspection of the treated hold.

The licensed PCO has the discretion to decide on the type of treatment to be used with the exception of methyl bromide. Methyl bromide fumigation can only be ordered and authorized by a CFIA inspector (refer to Appendix C).

In the case where holds adjacent to fumigated hold(s) are to be inspected, a gas free certificate should also be issued for these holds (for example, Holds 1, 3 and 5 are loaded with grain of foreign origin and were fumigated, Holds 2 and 4 are being inspected by CFIA. A gas free certificate should be issued for Holds 2 and 4 prior to commencing their inspection).

8.2 Chemical treatment of loaded or partially loaded holds

When an inspector finds that the hold structure, the existing cargo or both are infested in a loaded or partially loaded hold, and the inspector determines that fumigation could be effective in eliminating the infestation, this treatment may be ordered. Temperature, commodity, structural limitations, treatment duration and aeration times must be considered in ordering this treatment.

Re-entry into a partially loaded hold is not permitted due to health and safety concerns.

8.3 Treatment reports

Immediately prior to re-inspecting a treated hold, the inspectors must obtain a copy of the treatment report. The inspector should have access to a valid copy of the MSDS sheet for the active ingredient in treatment that has been employed in the hold.

The treatment report should indicate the following:

As applicable, the treatment report must show the time the gas was exhausted from the hold and the time that the hold was declared gas free. A gas free certificate can only be issued by a qualified person. The determination "gas free" is based on different levels for different chemicals/fumigants. Consult your supervisor, Job Hazard Analysis, or local OSH representative for information on gas freedom.

9.0 Training schedule

Inspectors who are required to conduct ship inspections must have been trained in fall arrest, use and care of personal protective equipment, working from heights, and Workplace Hazardous Material Information Systems (WHMIS). New inspectors should perform enough inspections in a variety of ships and encounter different situations in order for their supervisor and program officer to be satisfied that they can carry out the work effectively and safely as a lead inspector in a team.

Inspectors should receive the Ship & Laker Inspection training within one year of starting ship inspection. National training is to be held every 3 years, or, by the senior inspector / regional program officer responsible for ship inspection, if a new hire starts working before that time. All ship inspection staff should use the available national training materials to maintain their skills from year to year. Because policy standards, techniques and emerging pest issues change over time it is recommended that experienced staff also take part in these workshops as needed and as available time and budgets permit. Additional training may be required as determined by Area management.

10.0 Appendices

Appendix A: Forms

The following forms are relevant to ship inspection exercises.

Form title and number

The following documents are intended for internal use. CFIA staff can access these documents using the internal tools noted below.

N.B. All of the above CFIA/ACIA numbered forms - (Internal access only) can be found on the CFIA intranet site.

Appendix B: List of common stored product pests

Primary stored product pests

The following is a table listing different primary pests that may be found in stored products
Latin name Common names (North American; French)
Acanthoscelides obtectus Bean weevil; bruche du haricot
Bruchus pisorum Pea weevil; bruche du pois
Callosobruchus chinensis Cowpea weevil, black weevil; bruche chinoise
Caulophilus oryzae Broadnosed granary weevil; calandre des céréales
Cryptolestes ferrugineus Rusty grain beetle; cucujide roux
Cryptolestes pusillus Flat grain beetle; cucujide plat
Cryptolestes turcicus Flour mill beetle
Latheticus oryzae Longheaded flour beetle
Oryzaephilus mercator Merchant grain beetle; cucujide des grains oléagineux
Oryzaephilus surinamensis Sawtoothed grain beetle; cucujide dentelé des grains
Rhyzopertha dominica Lesser grain borer; capucin des grains
Sitophilus granarius Granary weevil; calandre des grains
Sitophilus oryzae Rice weevil; charaçon du riz
Sitophilus zeamais Maize Weevil; charaçon du mais
Sitotroga cerealella Angoumois grain moth; alucite des grains
Tenebroidesmauritanicus Cadelle; cadelle
Tribolium castaneum Red flour beetle; tribolium rouge de la farine
Tribolium confusum Confused flour beetle; tribolium brun de la farine
Tribolium destructor Large flour beetle
Trogoderma granariumTable Note 1 Khapra beetle; trogoderme des grains

Table Notes

Table Note 1

This is an insect of quarantine concern to Canada, and it does not occur in facilities in Canada.

Return to table note 1  referrer

Secondary stored product pests

The following is a table listing different secondary pests that may be found in stored products
Latin name Common name (North American; French)
Acarus siro Grain mite; ciron de la farine
Ahasverus advena Foreign grain beetle; cucujide des grains
Alphitobius diaperinus Lesser mealworm; ténébrion (petit) mat
Alphitobius laevigatus Black fungus beetle; ténébrion des champignons
Attagenus unicolor Black carpet beetle; attagène des tapis
Cadra cautella Almond moth
Carpophilus Sap beetle; nitidule
Cryptophagus Fungus beetle
Dermestes lardarius Larder beetle; dermeste du lard
Endrosis sarcitrella White shouldered house moth; teigne de la colle
Ephestia kuehniellaTable Note 2 Mediterranean flour moth; pyrale méditerranéenne de la farine
Haplotinea ditella Nocturnal butterfly; Papillon nocturne
Hofmannophila pseudospretella Brown house moth; teigne des semences
Lasioderma serricorne Cigarette beetle; lasioderme du tabac
Latridiidae family Scavenger beetles
Lepidoptera larvae that are only identifiable to the Order (species undetermined) Caterpillars; chenilles
Liposcelis bostrychophilus Psocid; Psoque
Nemapogon granellaTable Note 2 European grain moth; fausse-teigne des grains
Palorus ratzeburgi Small eyed flour beetle
Plodia interpunctellaTable Note 2 Indian meal moth; pyrale indienne de la farine
Ptininae subfamily Spider beetles; ptine
Pyralis farinalis Meal moth; pyrale de la farine
Stegobium paniceum Drugstore beetle; coléoptère des drogueries
Tenebrio molitor Yellow mealworm; ténébrion meunier
Tenebrio obscurus Dark mealworm; ténébrion obscur
Tineapallescentella Large pale clothes moth
Tinea pellionella Case-making clothes moth
Tribolium audax American black flour beetle
Tribolium madens European black flour beetle
Trogium pulsatorium Larger pale booklouse or deathwatch; psoque commun
Trogoderma glabrum Glabrous cabinet beetle
Trogoderma inclusum warehouse beetle; trogoderme des denrées
Trogoderma ornatum Dermestid beetle
Trogoderma variabile Warehouse beetle; Trogoderme des entrepôts
Trogoderma versicolor
Typhaea stercorea Hairy fungus beetle; mycétophage des céréales

Table Notes

Table Note 2

These Lepidoptera insects are considered by some references as primary insects as they can establish and reproduce on whole sound grain if appropriate conditions exist for an extended period of time.

Return to table note 2 referrer

Appendix C: Guidelines for authorizing the use of methyl bromide

Methyl Bromide

Methyl bromide is an ozone depleting substance and controlled by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Use of methyl bromide in Canada for Quarantine and Pre-Shipment purposes is discussed in R-005, Implementation Policy for the Quarantine and Pre-Shipment (QPS) Treatment Applications for the fumigant Methyl bromide in Canada. Methyl bromide romide is not authorized for use in pre-shipment ship hold fumigation. The only exception being in cases where a quarantine pest for Canada has been identified during ship inspection and there is imminent danger of it escaping from the ship holds.

Treatment with methyl bromide must be officially and formally ordered by a CFIA inspector in response to the imminent danger of a quarantine pest escaping.

Before authorizing the use of methyl bromide the following should be considered:

For Trogoderma granarium (Khapra beetle) infestation, the upper limit of the dosage range should be applied for the maximum exposure time of 24 hours.

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