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Labelling and composition requirements for grain and bakery products
Common name – grain and bakery products

For grain and bakery products that meet one of the standards prescribed in Division 13 of the FDR, the name appearing in bold-face type, but not in italics, in the FDR is the appropriate common name of that product.


The common name "biscotti" is used by the general population and can be used on its own without further explanation.


"Bran" is understood to be wheat bran and "wheat" does not have to be stated as part of the common name. If the bran is from a source other than wheat bran, then the name of the grain must be stated (for example, "oat bran").

For information on declaration of wheat for allergen labelling purposes, see the section on Food allergens and gluten declaration.

Bread crumbs and toasted wheat crumbs

The following common names are suitable for various types of bread crumbs when sold individually or in the list of ingredients as a constituent of a food:

In general, "(naming the bread) bread crumbs" is the common name used for crumbs from the named bread. For example, "enriched bread crumbs" or "enriched white bread crumbs" are common names for crumbs of products meeting the standard for enriched bread/enriched white bread in section B.13.022 of the FDR. Other examples include "rye bread crumbs", "potato bread crumbs", etc.

"Bread crumbs" is a common name that can be used for either:

  • crumbs of bread that meets the bread/white bread standard in section B.13.021 of the FDR.
  • as a generic term to refer to a mixture of crumbs of various types of breads that meet the standards in sections B.13.021 to B.13.029 of the FDR.

In both of the above situations, bread crumbs sold as a product require a list of ingredients. When "bread crumbs" is used as a generic term, the list of ingredients needs to include all the types of bread used. For information on declaration of components when bread crumbs are used as an ingredient, see Component declaration exemption - Bread crumbs and toasted wheat crumbs.

"Toasted bread crumbs" is a common name that refers to either of the above uses of "bread crumbs" in toasted form. When truthful, "toasted" may also be added to "(naming the bread) bread crumbs", such as "toasted rye bread crumbs".

"Toasted wheat crumbs" is an optional common name for wheat crumbs consisting of cooked dough made from flour and water, which may be unleavened (for example, pita), or chemically or yeast leavened, and which otherwise meet the standard for bread or enriched bread in sections B.13.021 and B.13.022 of the FDR.

Crumbs of yeast leavened breads that meet the standards in B.13.021 and B.13.022 of the FDR may use either the common name "bread crumbs/enriched bread crumbs" or "toasted wheat crumbs".

Breakfast bread and dinner bread

"Breakfast bread" or "dinner bread" is an acceptable common name for bread that meets the standard for bread [B.13.021, FDR]. These terms are not considered to imply that the food is a meal replacement (definition), prepackaged meal (definition) or, in the case of "breakfast", an instant breakfast. The message conveyed is that it is bread suitable for consumption at that time of day or consumed with that meal.

If a product is represented as a food that would replace a whole or complete meal, such as breakfast or dinner, it must meet specific requirements. See Meal replacement for more information.


The term "risotto" is defined in both English and French dictionaries as a rice cooked in meat or seafood stock and seasoned. Because the common name "risotto" is the name by which the product is generally known, it is acceptable without further explanation or clarification.


The common name "shortbread" in connection with biscuits and cookies is acceptable because it is recognized as a type of biscuit. No additional description is required as part of the common name.

Specialty bread

A separate standard exists for specialty breads [B.13.029, FDR] which provides for the use of certain ingredients (specifically, fruits, nuts, seeds and flavours) that are either not permitted in the general standard for bread or other ingredients (mostly various flours, meals and starches) that are permitted in greater amounts than in the general standard.

When a specialty bread complies with one of the other bread standards in Division 13 of the FDR, in addition to complying with the specialty bread standard [B.13.029, FDR], it must be labelled with the common name prescribed for the specific standard to which it complies. For example, bread containing 50% raisins by weight of the flour has to be called "raisin bread" since it meets the standard for raisin bread prescribed in B.13.025 of the FDR. The manufacturer does not have the option of calling such a bread "fruit bread" even though it meets the specialty bread standard.

The inclusion of specialty ingredients may also alter the nutritive value of the bread. If a company wishes to use a common name that reflects the change in the nutritive value, all requirements for the applicable nutrient content claim must be met. For example:

  • "Bran bread" must contain more than 2 g of fibre from wheat bran per serving. Refer to Dietary fibre claims for information on "naming the fibre source" claims.
  • "Protein bread" must have a protein rating of 20 or more. Refer to Protein claims for further information.

Unstandardized bread

Products resembling bread, but that do not meet the standard for bread due to ingredients or other differences, cannot be called bread.

Yeast is a mandatory ingredient in bread, therefore bread products made without yeast must state that yeast is not present in the common name or use an alternate common name. For example, the common name could either be "loaf" (for example, sprouted wheat loaf) or "bread" in conjunction with a statement indicating how the product differs from the standard such as, "made without yeast" on the main panel (for example, sprouted wheat bread – made without yeast) or even "unleavened bread" for products like pitas, chapatis, etc.

It is unacceptable to use of the term bread for cracker type products such as "crisp bread" which are not made by yeast leavened dough, unless the word bread forms part of a single word common name. Therefore "crispbread", "flatbread", "croustipain", or "craquelin" are acceptable common names for a product that does not meet the standard for bread.

See Modified standardized common names for more information on how to choose an appropriate common name for such products.


The common name of flour sold on its own or in the list of ingredients may be declared as "flour", "white flour", "enriched flour" or "enriched white flour". The vitamins and iron used to enrich the flour are required to be declared by the common name of their sources (unless a component declaration exemption applies), for example, thiamine hydrochloride (or mononitrate), riboflavin, niacin (or nicotinamide) and reduced iron.

Flour not meeting the grind size standard

If a flour product meets the compositional standard for flour except for the grind size, the common name "flour" may be modified to account for the coarser grind, for example "coarse flour", "coarse wheat flour" or "coarse bread flour" would all be acceptable common names for this product.

High fibre bread

In some instances, a high fibre ingredient is added to bread to increase its fibre content. When this added ingredient is not permitted in the bread standard, the resulting product cannot be described simply as bread. An acceptable common name would be "bread with added (name of the fibre source)" on the condition that the fibre source provides 2 g dietary fibre per serving. See the Dietary fibre claims for more information on permitted fibre claims.

Wild rice

Wild rice does not fall under the standard for rice [B.13.010, FDR] because it is considered to be a grass. However, "wild rice" is an appropriate common name for this food, including within the list of ingredients, as it is the name by which it is commonly known. As "wild" in this case refers to the type of food as opposed to how it was grown, it is acceptable whether the wild rice has been grown in a lake or in a paddy.

There is no Canadian requirement to distinguish on food labels wild rice grown in paddies from wild rice grown in lakes. However, it is acceptable to make such a distinction when factual, for example, "Canadian lake wild rice", "natural wild rice harvested from lakes", and other similar factual expressions.

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