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Denomination: 'Pinnacle'
Previously Proposed Denomination: 'AC Pinnacle'
Botanical Name: Avena sativa
Applicant/Holder: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg
Cereal Research Centre
195 Dafoe Road
Winnipeg, Manitoba
R3T 2M9
Breeder: David Wall, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba
Agent in Canada: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Office of Intellectual Property and Commercialization
107 Science Place
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
S7N 0X2
Tel: (306) 385-9316
Application Date: 1999-12-29
Application Number: 99-2100
Grant of Rights Date: 2003-02-24
Certificate Number: 1426
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2021-02-24

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'AC Assiniboia', 'AC Medallion' and 'CDC Pacer'

Summary: 'Pinnacle' is a hulled, spring oat variety which has a shorter plant height than the reference varieties, 'AC Assiniboia' and 'AC Medallion'. The leaves of 'Pinnacle' have medium to strong glaucosity whereas the leaves of 'AC Medallion' have weak to medium glaucosity. It is resistant to 6 races of Crown Rust (Puccinia coronata), 3 races of Black loose smut (Ustilago avenae) and Covered smut (Ustilago kolleri) whereas 'CDC Pacer' is susceptible to Crown Rust and is moderately susceptible to Black loose smut and Covered smut. 'Pinnacle' is resistant to moderately resistant to 6 races of Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae). The average number of branches in the panicle of 'Pinnacle' is greater than those of the reference varieties. The angle between the rachis and the dominant side branch of 'Pinnacle' is greater than 45 degrees whereas the angle of 'AC Assiniboia' and 'CDC Pacer' is between 30 and 45 degrees.


'Pinnacle' is a hulled, spring oat variety. The seedlings have green coleoptiles with medium length hypocotyls. Juvenile growth habit is erect with slight pubescence of the lower leaf sheath and blade. The leaves at booting stage are medium green with medium to strong glaucosity and slight to medium pubescence of the leaf margins. Leaf ligules are present with an upright to intermediate flag leaf attitude and slight to medium glaucosity of the sheath. Pubescence of the stem above and below the upper culm node is strong. The culm is yellow at maturity.

The panicle of 'Pinnacle' is symmetrical to intermediate in shape, is lax in density and intermediate in length. The medium-length branches are semi-erect to horizontal in attitude with the lower whorl of branches attached at the first node. The rachis is straight with a secondary rachis node present. The angle between the rachis and dominant side branch is more than 45 degrees. There are no hairs or spines on the lower panicle node. The second floret of the rachilla is medium in length and width, is glabrous with no grooves at maturity. Spikelet separation is fractured; floret separation is heterofractured. Spikelet attitude is semi-nodding.

The white glumes of 'Pinnacle' are mid-wide and mid-long. The lemma is short with a medium pointed tip and is white at maturity. The lateral and dorsal surfaces are glabrous with weak glaucosity at the green stage. Lemma awns are absent or very infrequent with medium overlap on the palea.

Under ultraviolet lights, the kernels of 'Pinnacle' are mixed in fluorescence. The cream coloured kernels are mid-plump with short basal hairs. There is pubescence of the caryopsis on the surface of the groat.

'Pinnacle' is resistant to Crown rust (Puccinia coronata) races CR13, CR181, CR185, CR192, CR223 and CR225, Black loose smut (Ustilago avenae) races A13, A60 and A617, Covered smut (Ustilago kolleri), is resistant to moderately resistant to Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae) races NA8, NA16, NA25, NA27, NA28 and NA55 and moderately susceptible to Red leaf Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). 'Pinnacle' has poor to fair lodging resistance and is sensitive to day length.

Origin & Breeding History: 'Pinnacle' was developed at the Agriculture & Agri-food Cereal Research Centre in Glenlea, Manitoba. It was derived from the cross 91RAT20/Dumont68 where 91RAT20 consists of W84499/OT237 and Dumont 68 is Pc68/7*Dumont. The cross was made in the growth chamber in fall 1991, with the F1 plants being grown in the greenhouse the winter-spring of 1992. A bulk F2 was grown in the 1992 Rust/Smut Nursery at Glenlea, Manitoba. Seed was harvested, bulked and sized with the most uniform seeds sent for planting in the New Zealand winter nursery during the winter of 1992-93 where F3 panicles were selected for oat crown rust resistance and Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus tolerance. Further selection for disease resistance and agronomic desirability was conducted in New Zealand and Glenlea during the 1993-95 growing seasons for the F4 to F7. 'Pinnacle' was tested in the 1995 Preliminary Yield Trials as W95540, was tested for one year in the 1996 Rust Area Test, and two years in the Western Cooperative Oat Test during the summers of 1997-1998. 'Pinnacle' was tested as 'OT292'.

Tests & Trials: Tests and trials for 'Pinnacle' were conducted in Glenlea, Manitoba during the summers of 1999 and 2000. The trials consisted of 4 replicates per variety, planted in a complete randomized block design. Measured characteristics were based on 20 measurements; height measurements were based on 8.

Comparison tables for 'Pinnacle' with reference varieties 'AC Assiniboia', 'AC Medallion' and 'CDC Pacer'

Flag leaf length (cm)

  'Pinnacle' 'AC Assiniboia' 'AC Medallion' 'CDC Pacer'
mean 17.534 14.96 15.36 20.4
standard deviation 3.38 4.42 3.66 4.14

Flag leaf width (mm)

  'Pinnacle' 'AC Assiniboia' 'AC Medallion' 'CDC Pacer'
mean 1.37 1.04 1.06 1.31
standard deviation 0.22 0.18 0.25 0.15

Plant height (culm plus panicle) (cm)

  'Pinnacle' 'AC Assiniboia' 'AC Medallion' 'CDC Pacer'
mean 96.25 104 101 97
standard deviation 2.36 2.94 2.58 3.92

Number of branches of panicle

  'Pinnacle' 'AC Assiniboia' 'AC Medallion' 'CDC Pacer'
mean 11.3 7.1 7.9 9.4
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