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Crab Apple

Denomination: 'Jade'
Previously Proposed Denomination: 'SJC59A79-01'
Botanical Name: Malus baccata
Applicant/Holder: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu
Horticulture Research & Development Centre
430, boulevard Gouin, P.O. Box 457
Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec
J3B 3E6
Breeder: Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec
Agent in Canada: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Office of Intellectual Property and Commercialization
107 Science Place
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
S7N 0X2
Tel: (306) 203-1383
Application Date: 2008-04-24
Application Number: 08-6312
Grant of Rights Date: 2010-08-30
Certificate Number: 3935
Date rights surrendered: 2022-08-30

Variety Description

Variety used for comparison: 'Royal Beauty'

Summary: 'Jade' has strong vigour in the stool bed while it is medium for 'Royal Beauty'. The branching habit of 'Jade' is spreading while it is weeping for 'Royal Beauty'. 'Jade' has medium branching frequency while it is high for 'Royal Beauty'. The dormant one-year-old shoot of 'Jade' has absent or very weak pubescence and shine of the bark on the upper half while for 'Royal Beauty' there is medium pubescence and weak shine of the bark. 'Jade' has medium flexibility of the dormant one-year-old shoot while it is strong for 'Royal Beauty'. 'Jade' has small to medium sized few lenticels while 'Royal Beauty' has large lenticels of medium number. The shoot tip leaves of 'Jade' have absent to very sparse pubescence on the upper side while it is medium for 'Royal Beauty'. 'Jade' has a large green leaf while the leaf of 'Royal Beauty' is purple to purple-green and medium in size. The colour of the leaf of 'Jade' before it falls is yellow while it is reddish-purple and green for 'Royal Beauty'. 'Jade' has a medium sized stipules while they are large for 'Royal Beauty'. The flower petals of 'Jade' are mainly greenish-white with a tinge of pink while for 'Royal Beauty' they are reddish-purple. The fruit of 'Jade' have more prominent ribbing with a larger sized eye, wider stalk cavity and thicker stalk than 'Royal Beauty'. 'Jade' has a fruit with a yellow ground colour and a washed out to solid red overcolour while for 'Royal Beauty' the fruit has no ground colour and a solid dark red overcolour. The fruit flesh of 'Jade' is yellowish while it is a reddish colour for 'Royal Beauty'. 'Jade' has better fruit setting ability than 'Royal Beauty'. 'Jade' has better resistance to scab than 'Royal Beauty'.


TREE: ornamental type, strong vigour, spreading branching habit, medium branching frequency, hardy to zone 5A, good ability to set fruit
ONE-YEAR-OLD SHOOT: absent to very weak pubescence on the upper half, absent to very weak shine to the bark, medium flexibility, lenticels few to medium in number and small to medium in size, predominantly reddish-brown on the sunny side, small to medium sized lateral bud, pointed bud tip, the position of the bud relative to axis is adpressed, medium bud support

SHOOT TIP LEAF: brownish-red, concave to straight shape in cross-section, absent to very weak pubescence on the upper side, lower side green
LEAF: no lobes, large size, orientation upwards to outwards, medium length/width ratio, acuminate apex, crenate margin, weak glossiness on upper side, no pubescence on lower side, medium anthocyanin colouration of veins on the lower side of the leaf, dark green colour on the upper side, yellow colour before leaf fall, medium stipule size, late time of leaf fall

FLOWER: early bud burst, begins flowering early, mainly greenish-white coloured bud with a tinge of pink at the full balloon stage, green pedicel, single type
PETALS: oblong shape, slightly touching to overlapping, white on upper and lower sides

FRUIT: very small diameter, flat shape, symmetric in side view, medium ribbing present, no crowning at distal end, persistence of calyx absent, very long persistence
EYE BASIN: aperture of eye half opened, medium sized eye, absent to very shallow, broad
STALK: medium thickness, medium to long
STALK CAVITY: shallow to medium depth, broad
FRUIT SKIN: smooth surface, weak to medium bloom, no waxiness, no translucency, thick, yellow ground colour, medium to high amount of red washed out to solid over colour, low amount of russet around stalk cavity, small to medium sized lenticels that are slight to intermediate in prominence
FRUIT FLESH: yellowish colour, absent or very weak distinctness of core line when looked at in cross-section, aperture of locules in cross section is opened
SEED: brown, normal shape

DISEASE RESISTANCE: resistant to moderately resistant to scab (Venturia inaequalis)

Origin & Breeding History: 'Jade' (experimental designations 'SJC59A79-01', 'PGO-12') originated from a cross between two Malus baccata species varieties 'Siberian Beauty' X 'Siberian Apple 27-16' from the breeding program at the All Union Institute of Plant Industry in Leningrad, U.S.S.R, Russia. The seedling was shipped to Ottawa in 1959, and has been under evaluation since 1976 at the Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada Station in St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec, after the program terminated in Ottawa. The first selection was done in 1995 in Frelighsburg, Quebec based on disease/pest susceptibility and winter hardiness. Final selection was done in 1999 based on resistance to scab.

Tests & Trials: Tests and trials were conducted in L'Acadie, Quebec in 2008. There were 9 trees of 'Jade' and 4 of 'Royal Beauty' in trial. Trees were spaced 1.5 metres apart within the row with rows being spaced 5 metres apart.

Click on image for larger view
Crab Apple: 'Jade' (right) with reference variety 'Royal Beauty' (left)

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