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Denomination: 'V1'
Botanical Name: Malus
Applicant/Holder: University of Guelph
Research Innovation Office
Building #92, 50 Stone Road East
Guelph, Ontario
N1G 2W1
Breeder: Aleck Hutchinson, University of Guelph, Simcoe, Ontario
Application Date: 1998-08-25
Application Number: 98-1480
Grant of Rights Date: 2004-08-16
Certificate Number: 1863
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2022-08-16

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'M9' and 'M26'

Summary: 'V1' is a more vigorous rootstock and produces fewer basal shoots in the stool bed than 'M9'. The growth of the basal shoots in the stool bed are wavy for 'V1' while they are straight for 'M26'. 'V1' has a lower suckering tendency than the reference varieties. 'V1' has intermediate to good root anchorage while 'M9' has poor anchorage. 'V1' has similar dwarfing ability as 'M26'. The dormant one year old shoots of 'V1' have less pubescence, more lenticels and shorter internodes than the reference varieties. The shape in cross section of the shoot tip leaves is concave while it is straight in 'M9' and convex in 'M26'. The colouration of the lower side of the shoot tip leaves is bronze green in 'V1' while it is green in the reference varieties. 'V1' has a large stipule size compared to the small size for the reference varieties. 'V1' has a globose conical fruit shape while the reference varieties have a more flat globose(oblate) shape. The crowning at the distal end of the fruit is present in 'V1' while it is absent in the reference varieties. 'V1' has a deeper eye basin and thinner fruit stalk than the reference varieties. The bloom of the skin of the fruit is absent in 'V1' while it is present in 'M9'. The mature fruit of 'V1' has a cream-white ground colour with a high amount of pink over colour on the skin while the fruit of 'M9' has yellow ground colour and 'M26' has green-yellow ground colour. Both reference varieties have a low amount of orange over colour on the skin. 'V1' has less russet on the skin than the reference varieties. The distinctness of the core line in the fruit cross section of 'V1' is weak while it is absent or very weak for 'M9' and very strong for 'M26'. The aperture of locules in the fruit cross section is open in 'V1' while it is closed in the reference varieties. 'V1' has more resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) than 'M26'.


'V1' is a clonal rootstock that produces trees of intermediate vigour, with very few to few wavy basal shoots. It has an upright to spreading branching habit with a 90 degree angle of the bearing branches to the trunk. The predominance of major fruit load being on spurs. It has low suckering tendency with intermediate to good root anchorage and strong dwarfing ability. The pubescence on the upper half of the dormant one-year-old shoot is weak, with a medium shine to the bark, and medium flexibility. It has a medium number and size of lenticels on the dormant one-year-old shoots. The predominant colour of the sunny side of the dormant one-year-old shoots is reddish brown. The lateral bud of the dormant one-year-old shoot is medium in size, pointed, adpressed, with a small support.

The colour of the growing tip of the leaf shoot is white. The shoot tip leaves are concave in cross section, have medium pubescence on the upper side, and are bronze green in colour on the lower side, with the apex and margins having colours other than green. It has medium sized leaves that face upwards and have no lobing. The leaf has an apex shape that is acuminate, with a serrated margin. The upper side of the leaf has medium glossiness, medium green colour, and very weak intensity of anthocyanin colouration. The lower side is pubescent with a weak anthocyanin colouration of the veins. The leaf has large stipules. The bud burst is mid-season and occurs around May 1, in Simcoe, Ontario.

The time of beginning of flowering is mid season. 'V1's fruit is small in diameter , asymmetric with a globose conical shape. The fruit is absent of ribbing with the presence of weak to medium crowning at the distal end. The eye of the fruit is medium in size with a closed aperture. The eye basin is shallow to medium in depth and narrow in width. The calyx is present in the mature fruit. The sepals of the fruit are medium to long in length, and are touching to overlapping. The stalk of the fruit is thin and short with a medium depth and width stalk cavity. The fruit surface is smooth, absent of bloom, with a strong waxiness to it. The skin is translucent, thin in thickness, with a cream white ground colour when the fruit is fully mature. There is a high amount of pink over colour which consists of a solid but slightly streaked pattern. There is a very low to low amount of russet around the stalk cavity. The lenticels are small in size with very slight prominence. 'V1' has white flesh. The distinctness of the core line is weak, with the aperture of the locules open. At maturity the seed is dark brown, and normal in shape. 'V1' has medium browning of the flesh, and is moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) disease.

Origin & Breeding History: 'V1' originated from a selection by Dr. Aleck Hutchinson of 680 seeds from open pollinated fruit of 'Kerr' apple crab x unknown. The selection was made in 1959 at McDonald College, of McGill University, Montreal, Quebec and assigned the accession code of V605. 'Kerr' is a seedling of Dolgo crabapple (Malus ×robusta 5 (M. prunifolia x M. baccata)) x Harrison apple ('Melinda' apple x unknown). Seedlings were evaluated in the field at Vineland, Ontario starting in 1961, and were selected based on growth habit, bark thickness, hardiness, ease of propagation, and disease and insect resistance. Out of this collection came lines V605-1 to V605-7 (now V1 to V7).

Tests & Trials: Tests and trials for 'V1' were conducted at the Horticultural Experimental Station, Simcoe, Ontario between 1994-2002 with 'Goodland', 'Royal Gala', 'Empire', 'Jonagold', and 'Northern Spy' as the grafted scions.

Comparison tables for 'V1' with reference varieties 'M9' and 'M26'

Thickness of dormant one year old shoot (mm)

  'V1' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 3.91 4.70 5.20
std. deviation 0.53 0.67 0.80

Length of internode of dormant one year old shoot (mm)

  'V1' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 12.68 14.20 20.36
std. deviation 2.43 3.11 5.35

Leaf length (mm)

  'V1' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 79.00 67.90 72.40
std. deviation 10.00 9.80 6.00

Leaf width (mm)

  'V1' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 49.00 42.70 48.80
std. deviation 7.60 6.30 4.36

Petiole length (mm)

  'V1' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 14.70 15.30 16.12
std. deviation 1.10 1.50 2.01
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