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Denomination: 'V3'
Botanical Name: Malus
Applicant/Holder: University of Guelph
Research Innovation Office
Building #92, 50 Stone Road East
Guelph, Ontario
N1G 2W1
Breeder: Aleck Hutchinson, University of Guelph, Simcoe, Ontario
Application Date: 1998-08-25
Application Number: 98-1478
Grant of Rights Date: 2004-08-16
Certificate Number: 1861
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2022-08-16

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'M9' and 'M26'

Summary: 'V3' is a less vigorous rootstock than 'M9'. 'V3' has less basal shoots in the stool bed than the reference varieties. The growth of the basal shoot in the stool bed is wavy for 'V3' while it is straight for 'M26'. 'V3' has a lower suckering tendancy than 'M26'. 'V3' has intermediate to good root anchorage while'M9' has poor anchorage. 'V3' has better dwarfing ability than 'M26' . The dormant one year old shoots of 'V3' has more pubescence, and more lenticels than the reference varieties. 'V3' has longer internodes than 'M9'. The shape in cross section of the shoot tip leaves is concave while it is straight in 'M9' and convex in 'M26'. 'V3' has a medium stipule size compared to the small size for the reference varieties. The fruit size diameter is very small to small for 'V3' while it is medium for 'M26'. 'V3' has a globose fruit shape while the reference varieties have a more flat globose(oblate) shape. 'V3' has a thinner and longer fruit stalk than the reference varieties .The mature fruit of 'V3' has a ground colour of cream-white with a high amount of pink over colour on the skin while the fruit of 'M9' has yellow ground colour and 'M26' a greenish yellow ground colour. Both reference varieties have a low amount of orange over colour on the skin. 'V3' has less russet on the skin than the reference varieties. The distinctness of the core line in the fruit cross section of 'V3' is absent to very weak while it is very strong for 'M26'. 'V3' has more resistance to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) than 'M26'.


'V3' is a clonal rootstock that produces trees of weak vigour, with very few to few wavy basal shoots. It has an upright to spreading branching habit with a greater than 90 degree to 90 degree angle of the bearing branches to the trunk. The predominance of major fruit load being on spurs. It has low to medium suckering tendency with intermediate to good root anchorage with good dwarfing ability. The pubescence on the upper half of the dormant one-year-old shoot is strong, with a weak to medium shine to the bark, and medium flexibility. It has few medium sized lenticels on the dormant one-year-old shoots. The predominant colour of the sunny side of the dormant one-year-old shoots is dark brown. The lateral bud of the dormant one-year-old shoot is medium in size, pointed, adpressed, with a small support.

The colour of the growing tip of the leaf shoot is white. The shoot tip leaves are concave in cross section, have strong pubescence on the upper side, and are green in colour on the lower side, with the apex and margins having colours other than green. It has medium sized leaves that face upwards and have no lobing. The leaf has an apex shape that is acuminate, with a serrated margin. The upper side of the leaf has strong glossiness, and medium green colour. The lower side is pubescent with a weak anthocyanin colouration of the veins. The leaf has medium sized stipules. The bud burst is mid-season and occurs around May 1, in Simcoe, Ontario.

The time of beginning of flowering is mid season. 'V3's fruit is very small to small in diameter , symmetric with a globose shape. The fruit is absent of ribbing with the presence of weak to medium crowning at the distal end. The eye of the fruit is small in size with a closed to half open aperture. The eye basin is very shallow to shallow in depth and narrow in width. The calyx is present in the mature fruit. The sepals of the fruit are medium in length, and are touching to overlapping. The stalk of the fruit is thin to medium in thickness, long with a medium depth and width stalk cavity. The fruit surface is smooth, with a bloom present, with no waxiness to it. The skin has very little translucency to it, thin in thickness, with a cream white ground colour when the fruit is fully mature. There is a high to very high amount of pink over colour which consists of flecked pattern. There is a no russet present on the fruit. The lenticels are small to medium in size with very slight to slight prominence. 'V3' has cream flesh. The distinctness of the core line is absent or very weak, with the aperture of the locules closed. At maturity the seed is dark brown, and normal in shape. 'V3' has medium browning of the flesh, and is moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) disease.

Origin & Breeding History: 'V3' originated from a selection by Dr. Aleck Hutchinson of 680 seeds from open pollinated fruit of 'Kerr' apple crab x unknown. The selection was made in 1959 at McDonald College, of McGill University, Montreal, Quebec and assigned the accession code of V605. 'Kerr' is a seedling of Dolgo crabapple (Malus ×robusta 5 (M. prunifolia x M. baccata)) x Harrison apple ('Melinda' apple x unknown). Seedlings were evaluated in the field at Vineland, Ontario starting in 1961, and were selected based on growth habit, bark thickness, hardiness, ease of propagation, and disease and insect resistance. Out of this collection came lines V605-1 to V605-7 (now V1 to V7).

Tests & Trials: Tests and trials for 'V3' were conducted at the Horticultural Experimental Station, Simcoe, Ontario between 1994-2002 with 'Goodland', 'Royal Gala', 'Empire', 'Jonagold', and 'Northern Spy' as the grafted scions.

Comparison tables for 'V3' with reference varieties 'M9' and 'M26'

Thickness of dormant one year old shoot (mm)

  'V3' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 4.33 4.70 5.20
std. deviation 0.76 0.67 0.80

Length of internode of dormant one year old shoot (mm)

  'V3' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 16.44 14.20 20.36
std. deviation 2.89 3.11 5.35

Leaf length (mm)

  'V3' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 73.00 67.90 72.40
std. deviation 7.20 9.80 6.00

Leaf width (mm)

  'V3' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 50.00 42.70 48.80
std. deviation 6.70 6.30 4.36

Petiole length (mm)

  'V3' 'M9' 'M26'
mean 18.90 15.30 16.12
std. deviation 2.80 1.50 2.01
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