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Chapter 8 - Reportable diseases

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8.1 Reportable diseases

Reportable diseases

  1. The Reportable Diseases Regulations set out the diseases prescribed as reportable for the purposes of section 2 of the Health of Animals Act.
  2. Section 5(2) of the Health of Animals Act requires any veterinarian who has any suspicion of the existence of reportable disease in Canada to immediately report such suspicion to a veterinary inspector. Please refer to the information on Federally Reportable Diseases in Canada - 2010.

8.2 Brucellosis

8.2.1 Etiology and distribution

Brucellosis is an infectious bacterial disease caused by various species of the family Brucellaceae. They arefound worldwide and can affect many mammalian species, including humans. In livestock, infection and subsequent production losses can cause a significant economic impact. In animals, the disease may be asymptomatic or may be characterized by reproductive issues, for example, infertility, late term abortions, weak offspring, and inflammatory lesions in the male reproductive system.

In Canada, brucellosis is listed as a reportable disease in the Reportable Diseases Regulations. Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis are listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH; founded as Office International des Épizooties (OIE)) and are considered foreign animal diseases in Canada's farmed and captive animal populations.

Brucella abortus, also known as bovine brucellosis, is the main causative agent of brucellosis in cattle, bison and elk. Canada declared itself free of bovine brucellosis to the World Organization of Animal Health (WOAH) in 1985 after a long-standing eradication program. Canada's wildlife reservoir of B. abortus is limited to wild bison in and near Wood Buffalo National Park (WBNP). There has never been a detected transmission event from wild bison to livestock in a 400km area around WBNP, despite heightened surveillance.

Brucella suis biovars 1-3 is known as swine brucellosis. Canada has never reported a case of swine brucellosis. B. suis biovar 4 is associated with brucellosis in caribou and muskoxen and is known to exist in Northern Canada.

Brucella melitensis commonly infects sheep and goats and is the most pathogenic zoonotic species of brucellosis. Canada has never reported a case of B. melitensis.

Producers and private veterinarians must remain vigilant as despite risk mitigation measures in place, wildlife reservoirs and imported animals can still serve as potential sources of introduction into domestic livestock populations. Some Brucella spp. are considered potential agents for bioterrorism. An outbreak of brucellosis in Canadian domestic livestock would have significant repercussions for animal health, public health, and international trade.

More information regarding brucellosis in Canada can be found on CFIA's Brucellosis page.

8.2.2  Surveillance

Ongoing surveillance activities allow Canada to claim freedom from brucellosisFootnote 1, supporting trade and allowing for early detection of disease incursions in livestock.

Active brucellosis surveillance for cattle, swine, cervids and bison continues at federal slaughter establishments and provincial abattoirs through routine post mortem inspection and the collection of blood samples from mature, sexually intact animals.

Another component of brucellosis surveillance comes from the testing of animals for export and entry into artificial insemination centers. There is also ongoing collection and testing of blood samples from cattle in community pastures in northern Alberta, within 400km of WBNP.

Disease reporting by producers and veterinary practitioners remains an important element of brucellosis surveillance.  Veterinary practitioners are encouraged to discuss instances of unexplained bovine abortions with a CFIA district veterinarian.

More information on CFIA's surveillance programs can be found on CFIA's Brucellosis page.         

8.2.3  Testing

Accredited veterinarians may submit samples for export certification (to satisfy USA federal / state or Mexico federal testing requirements) or through the Artificial Insemination Program. These samples are sent either to external laboratories approved for brucellosis testing (BPAT) or CFIA laboratories depending on the reason for testing and / or type of test required.  This information can be found in the applicable sections of this manual specific to the activity being conducted. Further information about sample collection, packaging, shipping and forms can also be found in Section 3.2 - Serologic Testing.

Reactors on preliminary testing will be handled as per the applicable program requirements and must be reported to a CFIA veterinarian for appropriate follow up.

Samples may not be submitted by accredited veterinarians to approved laboratories if brucellosis is suspected. If brucellosis is suspected by an accredited veterinarian, a CFIA district office must be contacted.

8.2.4  Public Health

Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, transmissible from animals to humans. Whenever brucellosis is confirmed in an animal, public health officials are to be notified.

When investigating an undetermined outbreak of abortion, practitioners should employ appropriate PPE and biosecurity practices. Anyone who has been in contact with suspect animals, potentially contaminated material (for example, aborted fetuses, placenta, birthing fluids) or who have consumed unpasteurized milk or milk products should be made aware of this zoonotic potential and seek medical attention if they subsequently become ill.

8.3 Tuberculosis

  1. Agriculture Canada first conducted on-farm testing of cattle to detect and control tuberculosis in cattle in 1923. The first General Test, during which all cattle herds in Canada were tested, was completed in 1961. In the late 1970s, after a series of General Tests had been conducted across Canada, an abattoir based screening and trace back program replaced on farm testing as the principal tuberculosis surveillance procedure.
  2. Tuberculosis has also been diagnosed in various species of ungulates, particularly cervidae. Regulations restricting the transport of cervidae in Canada were put into effect to help control tuberculosis. Information regarding the permit requirements for movement of cervids is available from CFIA district veterinarians.

8.4 Equine infectious anemia

This module provides a basic description of the disease including its diagnosis, as well as a summary of those aspects of the program that relate to accredited veterinarians, including policy, testing, submission processes, and the distribution of test results.

Since December 1, 2021, it has been mandatory to use digital Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) test certificates unless the practice meets the low-volume testing criteria for a digital exemption. In addition, paper form CFIA/ACIA 4679 – Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) Domestic Serum Test Report and certificate for multiple horses is no longer accepted.

Report on mandatory use of digital EIA test certificates in Canada

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) held an online consultation to seek input from private veterinarians that are accredited by the CFIA to perform duties related to the equine infectious anemia (EIA) control program in Canada.

In August of 2021, the CFIA posted a report summarizing the feedback received on key issues and important program updates.

In this chapter

Clinical disease

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is a viral disease of equinesFootnote 1 that is characterized by a variable clinical presentation and course that can include, but is not limited to:

The infected equine is a carrier of the virus for life, and there is no available vaccine or treatment for EIA.

Diagnosis

A tentative diagnosis of EIA may be made on clinical signs, but serological testing is required to confirm disease status. A Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)-approved EIA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test is used for screening, and any sample that receives a non-negative ELISA result is then tested with the EIA agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test (Coggins test). Confirmatory testing is performed at the CFIA's EIA National Reference Laboratory (NRL).

Policy

EIA has been a reportable disease under the Health of Animals Act since 1971 when a reliable test for the disease was made available. At that time, EIA was considered to be endemic in certain areas in northern Canada, and the number of positives in the tested population was approximately 2.9%.

The current EIA program was developed in response to a request from the Canadian horse industry to help protect its equines and maintain their competitiveness by respecting international health requirements. The CFIA's approach to EIA is to control the spread of the disease in the owned equine population.

Funding for the EIA Disease Control Program is supported by industry through a cost-recovery program. A fee is collected for each sample that is submitted to laboratories that are approved by the CFIA to perform EIA testing.

All members of the family Equidae, comprising horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, are test-eligible, regardless of sex or age.

EIA suspects must be reported to the CFIA, and equines with non-negative screening results are dealt with in accordance with the mandatory response portion of the current EIA Disease Control Program. Confirmed cases must be removed from the population to help prevent the spread of the virus. Equines confirmed to be infected with EIA are ordered destroyed and owners are eligible to receive compensation in accordance with the Compensation for Destroyed Animals Regulations.

Testing for domestic activities and export to the United States (U.S.) and Mexico

EIA accredited veterinarians are authorized to collect blood samples for EIA testing and submit them only to CFIA EIA-approved laboratories listed in module 3.3 Laboratories. Testing may be required:

Before taking the blood sample advise the owner,

If an equine is suspected of being infected with EIA, it is imperative to use a sampling protocol that will prevent the transfer of blood from 1 equine to another equine, or its sample (such as to contaminate another sample). The following guidelines should be used when examining equines or procuring samples:

Shipping samples

CFIA-approved laboratories will only accept submissions that are accompanied by a CFIA-approved (digital or paper) submission document that is complete and accurate. See below for details pertaining to approved paper and digital submission methods.

After collection, samples are kept refrigerated and shipped to the laboratory without delay. Use the safest and quickest means of shipment available. Ship samples only during the week to avoid having them delayed in transit or held over at the laboratory on weekends or holidays.

In case of delayed shipment, samples may be frozen and sent at a later date if the following requirements are met:

Note: a test result will only be valid if the test is performed within 3 weeks of the sampling date. Approved laboratories should not perform analysis on samples that do not comply with this timeline.

Digital system – Sample submission and result reporting

Sample submission

Accredited veterinarians (AV) must use a CFIA-approved digital EIA test certification system to submit samples and create EIA test certificates. There are 2 exceptions to this:

  1. the AV submits samples on behalf of a practice to which all of the following apply:
    • 10 or less samples are submitted for EIA testing per calendar year
    • the practice previously identified themselves as a low-volume tester to the CFIA by submitting a digital exemption application form (available annually in November)
    • the practice is approved and remains in good-standing for a digital exemption and they have not received communications from the CFIA to the contrary
  2. the AV's practice is registered to use a CFIA-approved digital EIA test certification system but the AV is forced to use a paper submission form due to circumstances outside of their control.
    For example, there is a technical malfunction with the digital system and they are unable to complete the sample submission. This is referred to as emergency use. If a practice is expected to exceed 10 emergency use submissions in a calendar year, first contact your local animal health district office. Failure to do so will result in the submissions being rejected by the approved laboratory.

If either (1) or (2) apply, an AV is permitted to submit samples for testing using paper Form CFIA/ACIA 3937 – Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) Serum Test Report and certificate.

To use a CFIA-approved digital EIA test certification system, the accredited veterinarian must register with the service provider and receive the necessary training from them. The CFIA EIA-approved laboratory that samples are being sent to for testing must also be registered with the same provider.

The data fields in the digital system are based on Form CFIA/ACIA 3937 and the following information requirements apply to both:

owner information: record the legal name of the person, company or organization, and all contact information.

animal location: record the precise legal description of the land location of the equine at the time of sampling, and the district office serving that location.

reason for test: check-off only 1 box to indicate why the test is being requested. If more than 1 applies, choose the 1 that is most appropriate at the time of sampling.

Description of horse:

Submitter information: record the submitter code (accreditation number), submitter name and signature, sampling date, and all contact information.

If a digital submission is created and a mistake is noted before the approved lab completes testing, an accredited veterinarian can ask the approved laboratory to reject the incorrect submission. Please contact the approved laboratory to confirm the details for this process. If a mistake is noted after the sample has been tested, the accredited veterinarian may, at the owner's request, re-sample the equine and provide a new submission.

Digital photographs

Ensure that the digital photographs are of good quality by taking into consideration lighting conditions, cleanliness, image resolution, proper positioning of the equine and the absence of objects that could obstruct the animal (for example, saddle, blanket, structures). The only animal that should be visible in the photograph is the one being tested. The only exceptions to this would be if other animals are partially visible in the distant background, or if a foal is with its mare. In the latter case, the animal being tested must not be obstructed by the other. Every effort should be made to exclude human handlers from the picture.

It is the responsibility of the accredited veterinarian to ensure that the photographs in the equine's digital profile are representative of the animal's appearance at the time of sampling. If significant changes have occurred since the original photos were taken, new photos are required and the physical description text amended to reflect the changes. Examples include newly acquired marks such as brands or scars, or age-related colour changes.

Getting good quality photographs is usually possible although sometimes it can be challenging due to the animal's temperament and/or the environmental conditions. It's recommended that when it's known that photographs need to be taken at an upcoming appointment, that the veterinary practice notify clients of the need to have the animal adequately cleaned so that their markings are visible, as is necessary for the paper form, and that they are located in an area with sufficient lighting. If it is known that an equine will not allow for proper photographs to be taken during the appointment, it's possible to ask the owner to take their own photographs, send them to the veterinary practice, and have the practice upload them onto the digital platform. The photographs must conform with the requirements listed below and the accredited veterinarian must be able to confirm that the submitted pictures match the animal they are sampling.

Failure to produce good quality photographs may result in the digital EIA test certificate being rejected by an inspector. If needed, please reach out to the digital service provider for tips on how to get the best photographs.

Note that all white markings need to be visible on digital photographs, and that the full length of all appendages needs to appear in the photographs. For frontal photographs, if the only markings are on the head, the photograph can be limited to the head. If there are white markings on the front legs, the full length of the legs must be included in the photographs. All descriptor fields are required to be filled. Please use "N/A" or "None" if appropriate. If a digital submission system is used for equines with very detailed markings (for example, Appaloosas), written descriptions of the white markings are not required and "N/A" can be used in the descriptor fields.

Accredited veterinarians are responsible for the security and proper use of their digital signature and shall take reasonable care to prevent its misuse. Only accredited veterinarians are authorized to sign documents using their password protected electronic signature. Other clinic staff do not have the authority to be part of the signing process. Utilization of your digital signature by anyone other than yourself would be considered a breach of your agreement as an accredited veterinarian and would render the form invalid. Please note that provisions of article 10 from your Accredited Veterinarian Agreement also apply to the digital submission of documents through a digital system.

Final digital EIA test certificates are recognized as official EIA test results if they are produced using a CFIA-approved digital EIA test certification system. Black and white or colour printed copies of the CFIA-approved electronic EIA test certificate are both acceptable and can be used for domestic use within Canada and as proof of a negative EIA test result for export purposes.

Result reporting

For a negative EIA test result, the CFIA-approved digital EIA test certificate is available online in real-time by the owner (optional), the accredited veterinarian, the CFIA-approved laboratory and the CFIA.

For a non-negative EIA test result, the system will generate a CFIA-approved digital EIA test certificate that is watermarked with the word "inconclusive". The owner of the equine will not have access to the digital inconclusive test certificate on the CFIA-approved digital EIA test certification system. The submitting accredited veterinarian will have access to the digital inconclusive test certificate but is not to provide the client with a copy of the certificate or report the result to the owner until after confirmatory testing at the EIA NRL is complete. If the results are confirmed to be positive for EIA, the CFIA district office will contact the accredited veterinarian and the animal's owner to inform them of next steps. If the results are confirmed to be negative, the CFIA district office will forward the results to the accredited veterinarian who will forward the negative documentation to the owner.

CFIA-approved digital EIA test certification system

The CFIA-approved digital EIA test certification system is available in both official languages, although the main homepage is only available in English. Once you have registered to use the system (fees will apply), you will be provided with a username, a password and a link to a login page. The user's browser language will be detected by the system and will determine which language is displayed on the Canadian platform. The login page may also be accessed from the main homepage by selecting "login".

Paper Form CFIA/ACIA 3937 – Sample submission and result reporting

Sample submission

Under unique circumstances, accredited veterinarians can use Form CFIA/ACIA 3937 to submit a blood sample from an individual equine for domestic purposes and for any testing being performed for export to the U.S. or Mexico. Please refer to the Digital system submission section above for a description of when paper submissions will be permitted. Note that beginning in 2023, practices designated as unapproved will be contacted by the CFIA to inform them they will no longer be able to submit the paper form to approved laboratories, and doing so will result in the submission being rejected by the lab.

All fields on Form CFIA/ACIA 3937 must be completed in full unless the information does not exist; strike-out all unused fields. Please refer to the Digital system submission section above for a description of the required information.

The top 3 copies (1-white, 2-light yellow, and 3-pink), of Form CFIA/ACIA 3937 must be submitted to the CFIA-approved laboratory with the blood sample. The submitter (accredited veterinarian) retains the fourth copy (dark yellow). This copy is not to be marked with results or used as a duplicate.

Result reporting

For a negative EIA test result at the CFIA-approved laboratory, the form will be marked with the test results and signed by an authorized person. Copy 1 (white) of the form will be returned to the submitter (accredited veterinarian). Copy 2 (light yellow) will be forwarded by the CFIA-approved laboratory to the district office that serves the sampling location. Test results will not be disclosed by the CFIA-approved laboratory over the telephone. Under unique circumstances, the accredited veterinarian can request that the laboratory send a copy of the original certificate via fax, or email to the district office prior to the district office receiving the mailed copy.

Under no circumstances is an accredited veterinarian or a CFIA-approved laboratory to make any alterations to the form once laboratory results have been entered. If the animal description is not accurate or required information is missing, the accredited veterinarian may, at the owner's request, re-sample the equine for testing and provide a new submission form.

In the case of a non-negative EIA test result at a CFIA-approved laboratory, the district office that serves the sampling location will be notified of the result within 24 hours by the laboratory. Copy 1 (white) and copy 2 (light yellow) of the form will be mailed to the district office. The serum sample will be forwarded to the NRL where confirmatory testing will be conducted. If the final result is confirmed to be negative, a CFIA veterinarian will send the original submitter (accredited veterinarian) copy 1 (white) of the form along with a Client Information Sheet (CIS) that includes the NRL test results.

If the confirmatory results are non-negative (inconclusive or positive), those will be reported to the accredited veterinarian, as well as the owner of the equine, by a CFIA veterinarian.

Digital exemption application form for accredited veterinarians – Low-volume testers

The online application period has closed for 2022. Practices that have applied for a digital exemption will not receive a response from the CFIA. The exceptions to this would be if the CFIA requires additional information, clarification, or if it is determined during the review of the 2021-2022 laboratory submission data that the practice does not meet the exemption criteria. Therefore, unless informed otherwise, an applicant is approved for the digital exemption.

Any practice that is going to exceed 10 paper submissions during the year needs to follow the instructions outlined above to start using the digital EIA test certification system. The CFIA will contact practices if they exceed the low-volume criteria during the course of the year, and their exemption may be revoked.

If you have any questions please reach out to your local animal health district office.

References

Copies of Form CFIA/ACIA 3937 are available from your local animal health district office.

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