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Proposed document to be incorporated by reference: Canadian Hatchery and Supply Flock Testing Standards

Table of contents

Definition

CFIA approved laboratory
means an establishment or vehicle that is approved under section 29 of the Health of Animals Act for the purpose of performing tests in relation to hatcheries and supply flocks.

Part I – Canadian Hatchery Testing Standards

The biological hazards that this part deals with are the bacteria and moulds that are required to be tested and monitored as part of determining the efficiency of cleaning and disinfection in the hatchery, and Salmonella species required to be monitored from day of hatch sampling.

A. Environmental sampling and testing

Environmental testing results must demonstrate the effectiveness of the hatchery's cleaning and disinfection programs.

The hatchery must meet the following standards

  1. Environmental sampling and testing must be done at least every six months after cleaning and disinfection of surfaces.
  2. The cleaning and disinfection must be sufficiently effective that the environmental testing results show that the average bacterial counts, the average coliform counts and the average mould counts are in the acceptable range as shown in the following tables:

    Table 1 – Surface testing standard counts
    Rating interpretation Average bacterial counts Average bacterial counts Average bacterial counts Average coliform counts Average coliform counts Average coliform counts
    50 cm2 Table Note 1 20 cm2 Table Note 2 12 cm2 Table Note 3 50 cm2 20 cm2 12 cm2
    Acceptable 0-16 0-16 0-10 0-5 0-5 0-3
    Follow-up required 17+ 17+ 11+ 6+ 6+ 4+

    Table Notes

    Table Note 1

    Example: regular Petri dish with specific agar. Swab 20 cm2 using cotton-tipped applicator and rolled onto plate; not recommended as a contact slide/plate.

    Return to table note 1  referrer

    Table Note 2

    Example: Rodac contact plates

    Return to table note 2  referrer

    Table Note 3

    Example: contact slides from Solar Biologicals

    Return to table note 3  referrer

    Table 2 – Air testing standard counts
    Rating interpretation Average mould counts Average mould counts Average mould counts
    50 cm2 Table Note 4 20 cm2 Table Note 2 12 cm2 Table Note 3
    Acceptable 0-3 0-2 0-1
    Follow-up required 3+ 2+ 1+

    Table Note

    Table Note 4

    Example: regular Petri dish with specific agar.

    Return to table note 4  referrer

  3. If the counts are in the range for which the table indicates that follow-up is required, then the following action is necessary:
    1. re-test all surfaces and rooms after re-cleaning and re-disinfection

B. Day of hatch sampling

Every sixth week while the hatchery is in operation, samples of fluff, chick pads, egg shells, or meconium must be collected. All samples must be sent to a CFIA approved laboratory and tested for Salmonella. The initial sampling and testing for a new supply flock must be within the first six weeks of its egg setting.

The sampling schedule for hatcheries shall be as follows

  1. hatch of less than four times (four days) a week – Samples must be collected from all hatchers from which chicks are removed during the sixth week
  2. hatch of four or more times (days) a week – Samples must be collected from all hatchers from which chicks are removed on two consecutive days during the sixth week

C. Embryonated eggs (balut) sampling

The frequency of sampling must be every sixth week while a hatchery is in operation. The first sample from a new supply flock must be taken within the first six weeks of egg setting. At least six egg samples from a supply flock at the end of incubation must be submitted to a CFIA approved laboratory, and tested for Salmonella.

Part II – Canadian Supply Flock Testing Standards

The biological hazards that this part deals with are the Salmonella species.

A. Disease classifications

Disease classifications are based on a flock and not based on premises. Therefore, if the premises have several supply flocks, each one must be tested separately.

The classifications are the minimum requirements at which the supply flock must be tested.

  1. All primary breeding supply flocks must meet the testing requirements in the following classifications
    1. Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level I
    2. Salmonella Enteritidis Clean
  2. All layer supply flocks, including dual-purpose supply flocks, must meet the testing requirements in the following classifications
    1. Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level II
    2. Salmonella Enteritidis Clean
  3. All other supply flocks must meet the testing requirements in the following classifications
    1. Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level II
    2. Salmonella Monitored
  4. All supply flocks supplying eggs for balut production must meet the testing requirements for Salmonella Enteritidis Controlled

B. Required sampling and testing

1. Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level I

All primary breeding supply flocks must meet the requirements in the Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level I. Screening for these diseases is done through serological testing.

The supply flock must meet the following testing requirements
  1. All primary breeding supply flocks must be tested on the day of hatch or on the day of farm placement
  2. If total mortality rate is higher than 3% for chickens and 5% for turkeys and other birds within the first 14 days, the supply flock must be sampled and tested. A minimum of 20 freshly dead or frozen or cull birds must be submitted to a CFIA approved laboratory to be cultured for Salmonella Pullorumand Salmonella Gallinarum
  3. A supply flock of four months of age or upon reaching sexual maturity, whichever comes first, must be blood-tested for Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum. This must be done before moving to the laying facility or start of egg production, whichever comes first
  4. Test all birds in a supply flock with 315 birds or less. Test 315 birds in a flock with 316 birds or more. Sampled birds must be individually identified by wing band, leg band, or similar devices
  5. A supply flock that is retained for more than 12 months after the initial qualifying test must have serological re-testing performed in the 13th month or a minimum of four weeks after the induction of a moult, if done
  6. Reactors on a serological test shall be submitted to a CFIA approved laboratory for confirmatory Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum culture
    1. if there are more than four reactors in a flock, a minimum of four reactors shall be submitted
    2. if the flock has four or fewer reactors, all of the reactors must be submitted
    3. the reactors must be submitted within 10 days of the date of reading an official blood test
  7. Fluff or other day of hatch samples must be taken and submitted at six- week intervals for Salmonella testing to a CFIA approved laboratory
  8. All barn and hatchery environmental samples must be tested with results being negative for Salmonella Pullorumand Salmonella Gallinarum

If hatchery samples (such as chicks, chick box liners, shells, fluff, or meconium) resulted in suspicious or positive results for Salmonella Pullorumor Salmonella Gallinarum: at least 315 birds in the receiving farm must be serologically tested. Reactor birds (as above) must be submitted to a CFIA approved laboratory for Salmonella testing.

2. Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level II

All other supply flocks must meet the standards in the Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level II.

The supply flock must meet the following testing standards
  1. If it is uncertain as to whether the primary breeding supply flock tested negative for Salmonella Pullorumand Salmonella Gallinarum, then a serological screening test must be performed on the supply flock as described above in Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level I
  2. All supply flocks must be sampled at day of hatch or day of farm placement
  3. Serological screening test must also be performed in multi-species premises The procedure is the same as in the Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum Clean classification level I
  4. Fluff or other day of hatch samples must be submitted at six- week intervals and tested for Salmonella at a CFIA approved laboratory
  5. If total mortality rate is higher than 3% for chickens and 5% for turkeys and other birds within the first 14 days, the supply flock must be sampled and tested for Salmonella. A minimum of 20 freshly dead or frozen or cull birds must be submitted to a CFIA approved laboratory to be cultured for Salmonella Pullorumand Salmonella Gallinarum
  6. All barn and hatchery environmental samples must be tested with test results being negative for Salmonella Pullorumand Salmonella Gallinarum

3. Salmonella Enteritidis Clean classification

All primary breeding supply flocks, layer supply flocks and dual-purpose supply flocks must meet the standards in theSalmonella Enteritidis Clean classification

The supply flock must meet the following testing standards
  1. If it cannot be verified that the supply flock originated from a source (elite/primary breeding supply flock) that is tested with and has results compatible with the Salmonella Enteritidis Clean classification, then fluff samples (or egg shells, meconium, chick pads) must be examined bacteriologically for Salmonella at a CFIA approved laboratory and must be negative for Salmonella Enteritidis
  2. Environmental samples must be collected from the supply flock. A minimum of one pair (or two pieces) of bootie or drag swabs (pooled) and one dust swab in the barn for every 5000 birds must be submitted to a CFIA approved laboratory
  3. Fluff or other day of hatch samples must be submitted at six- week intervals and tested for Salmonella at a CFIA approved laboratory. Sampling must be performed at or above the following minimum frequency

    For rearing/pullet/conditioning birds

    i. day of hatch: samples such as fluff, chick box liners, meconium or egg shells must be submitted

    ii. repeat sampling at least two more times: For example: at a minimum of four weeks old then at least two weeks prior to moving to the laying barn and/or prior to egg production, whichever comes first

    For laying birds

    iii. samples must be tested during the lay period at a maximum interval of every four weeks starting within the first four weeks of production of settable eggs until the supply flock is depleted

  4. All barn and hatchery environmental samples must be tested with test results being negative for Salmonella Enteritidis

4. Salmonella Enteritidis Controlled classification

All supply flocks supplying eggs for balut productionmust meet the requirements in theSalmonella Enteritidis Controlled classification.

The supply flock must meet the following testing requirements
  1. The supply flock must originate from a primary breeding supply flocks that is on the Salmonella Enteritidis Clean classification. If this cannot be verified, fluff (or egg shells, meconium, chick pads) samples at hatch must be examined bacteriologically for Salmonella by a CFIA approved laboratory and must be negative for Salmonella Enteritidis
  2. Environmental samples must be submitted from the supply flock. A minimum of one pair (or two pieces) of bootie or drag swabs (pooled) and one dust swab in the barn for every 5,000 birds must be submitted to a CFIA approved laboratory
  3. Minimum sampling frequency must be at the following intervals

    For rearing/pullet/conditioning birds:

    i. day of hatch: take samples (minimum of one type) such as fluff, meconium, chick pad swabs, or egg shell and

    ii. take samples prior to moving to the lay barn or before egg production whichever comes first

    For laying birds

    iii. take samples at a minimum interval of every 12 weeks starting within the first four weeks of settable egg production until the supply flock is depleted

  4. Fluff or other day of hatch samples must be submitted at six- week intervals and tested for Salmonella at a CFIA approved laboratory

5. Salmonella Monitored classification

All other supply flocks must meet the requirements in the Salmonella Monitored classification.

The supply flock must meet the following testing requirements
  1. If it cannot be verified that the supply flock originates from a primary breeding supply flock that is on the Salmonella Enteritidis Clean classification then fluff (or egg shells, meconium, chick pads) samples at hatch must be examined bacteriologically for Salmonella by a CFIA approved laboratory and must be negative for Salmonella Enteritidis
  2. Fluff or other day of hatch samples must be submitted at six- week intervals and tested for Salmonella at a CFIA approved laboratory
  3. Swabs (sponges, drag or booties) from the barn must be submitted at least two weeks prior to the supply flock depletion. A minimum of one pair (or two pieces) of booties or drag swabs (pooled) and one dust swab in the barn for every 5000 birds must be submitted to a CFIA approved laboratory

Part III – Canadian Hatchery and Supply Flock Testing Standards, Sampling schedule summary

Table 3 – Primary breeding supply flocks
Classification Age Hatchery samples Table Note 5 Blood Barn environmental samples
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean level I Day 1 Check
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean level I Before egg production Check
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean level I Every 6 weeks Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean Day 1 Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean 4 weeks old Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean Before egg production Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean Every 4 weeks during egg production (maximum interval) Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean Every 6 weeks Check
Table 4 – Layer supply flocks
Classification Age Hatchery samples Table Note 5 Blood Barn environmental samples Remarks
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean level II Day 1 Check
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean level II Before egg production Check Or optional to level I
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean level II Every 6 weeks Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean Day 1 Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean 4 weeks old Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean Before egg production Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean Every 4 weeks during egg production (maximum frequency) Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Clean Every 6 weeks Check
Table 5 – Supply flocks supplying eggs to balut hatcheries
Classification Age Hatchery samples Table Note 5 Blood Barn environmental samples Remarks
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean Level II Day 1 Check
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean Level II Before egg production Check Or optional to level I
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean Level II Every 6 weeks Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Controlled Day 1 Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Controlled Before egg production Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Controlled Every 12 weeks during egg production (maximum frequency)
or
Check
Salmonella Enteritidis Controlled Every 4 weeks (maximum frequency) Check Or optional to Salmonella Enteritidis Clean
Salmonella Enteritidis Controlled Every 6 weeks Check
Table 6 – All other supply flocks
Classification Age Hatchery samples Table Note 5 Blood Barn environmental samples Remarks
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean Level II Day 1 Check
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean Level II Before egg production Check Or optional to level I
Salmonella Pullorum – Salmonella Gallinarum Clean Level II Every 6 weeks Check
Salmonella Monitored Day 1 Check
Salmonella Monitored Every 6 weeks Check
Salmonella Monitored Before slaughter
or
Check
Salmonella Monitored Every 4 weeks (maximum frequency)
or
Check Or optional to Salmonella Enteritidis Clean
Salmonella Monitored Every 12 weeks (maximum frequency) Check Or optional to Salmonella Enteritidis Controlled

Table Notes

Table Note 5

For example: fluff, chick pads, meconium, or egg shells.

Return to table note 5  referrer

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