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National Biosecurity Standard for Livestock, Poultry and Deadstock Transportation
4.0 Glossary

Animal holding facility:

Any premises where live animals are kept for production (e.g. farms, feedlots).

Best practices:

For this document, a best practice is a program, process, strategy, or activity that has been shown to be most effective in preventing and controlling disease. Best practices may have to be modified before implementation to accommodate a specific farm or facility and enhance practicality.

Between Loads Phase:

Commences after the animals are unloaded and is completed when animals are loaded for the next transportation event. If the removal of organic matter (scrape-out) was not conducted at the destination, it may become a requirement during this phase.


A thin layer of microorganisms adhering to the surface of a structure, which may be organic or inorganic.


Procedures and physical measures designed to reduce the risk of introduction, establishment and spread of animal or plant diseases, infections or infestations to, from and within a population.


A practice of removing visible organic matter. Cleaning is often considered a two-step process; dry cleaning by scraping out the transport unit followed by a wet cleaning with water.


A change from the normal state. A deviation or disruption in the structure or function of a tissue, organ or part of a living animal's body.


The process that is used to inactivate, decrease or eliminate pathogens from a surface or object.


The period of time that a piece of equipment has not been used, usually after having been cleaned and disinfected.

Health status:

Current state of health of the animal or herd, including both its condition and the presence of pathogens in the animal or herd. Information used to establish the health status includes the disease history and the results of any diagnostic testing, herd health management practices, vaccination and deworming protocols in sufficient detail to determine compatibility with the resident herd, and housing and movement detail sufficient to identify any potential recent disease exposure.


The invasion and multiplication or reproduction of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites in the tissues of a living animal.

Infectious disease:

Disease caused by pathogens (e.g. parasites, bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions).


Includes animals of the bovine, caprine, equine, ovine and porcine species.


Biological agents, such as bacteria, virus, fungi, parasites or other microorganisms, which have the potential to cause diseases.


Staff, owners, and operators and their family members.


Includes insects, birds and vermin (including mice, rats).


All birds reared or kept in captivity for breeding, the production of eggs or meat for consumption, for production of other commercial products, for restocking supplies of game birds, or for breeding these categories of birds.

Power unit:

Refers to the motorized component of the transport unit.


A defined and documented procedure to be followed, detailing the steps to follow to meet an objective.


The likelihood of an unfavorable event occurring and affecting health.

Susceptible animal:

An animal that lacks the immunity or ability to resist the invasion of pathogens which then multiply or reproduce resulting in infection.

Transport unit:

Includes the power unit (or tractor) and trailer.


A practice of removing remaining organic matter after cleaning. Washing may involve application of low or medium pressure water, degreaser or detergent and if needed, scrubbing to disrupt biofilms and loosen organic material.

Wash station:

Refers to any facility where transport units are cleaned and disinfected.

Zoonotic diseases:

Diseases and infections that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and humans (e.g. rabies, anthrax).

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