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National Biosecurity Standard for Livestock, Poultry and Deadstock Transportation
Annex 6: Biosecurity guidance for choosing a wash station

The following general criteria should be considered for choosing a wash station for cleaning and disinfection;

  1. Access pathways
    1. Ideally clean transport units do not take the same route as dirty transport units.
    2. Pathways are maintained and are kept free of manure and other organic matter.
    3. Pathways are graded and made with a surface material that allows for year-round drainage.
  2. Site organization
    1. There is physical and functional separation of clean and dirty areas to ensure that there is no cross-contamination between dirty and clean transport units.
      1. There are designated storage areas for clean versus dirty transport units.
      2. Vehicles (flow and parking), equipment (flow and storage) and staff (flow and duties) are organized to ensure that there is no cross contamination between clean and dirty areas.
    2. Scrape-out locations are completely separated from the wash site and pose no risk of cross-contamination of the wash site or of cleaned and disinfected transport units leaving the site.
  3. Wash bays/Washing areas
    1. Designed in a way that prevents wash water from contaminating other areas and equipment on the site.
      1. Floors are bermed to prevent water from flowing and contaminating areas outside of the wash bay.
      2. Walls or curtains are used to prevent contaminated wash water from splashing out of the washing area.
      3. Floors are sloped to provide good drainage and direct water towards a wastewater collection system.
    2. The floor and walls or curtains are made from a material that can be cleaned and disinfected.
    3. Wash bays are cleaned and disinfected between transport unit washes. See Annex 4a: Example of a wash bay protocol for swine and ruminant transport Units.
    4. Wash area is drive-through so that clean trailers do not have to take the same route as dirty trailers.
    5. Kept at a temperature above freezing year round.
  4. Water
    1. Quality
      1. Water that does not contribute to the level of contamination or pathogen load and available in sufficient quantity to perform the clean and disinfection process.
        1. Using recycled wash water without treatment is a risk.
      2. Hardness (presence of ions of calcium and magnesium may interfere with the effectiveness of detergents and degreasers).
      3. Neutral pH water is recommended since alkaline and acidic water will impact the efficacy of detergents and disinfectants.
    2. Capacity to achieve the manufacturer's recommended water temperature for the detergent and disinfectant.
      1. Detergents or disinfectants are less effective when water temperature is outside of the recommended range.
  5. Effluent collection systems
    1. Has the capacity required for the site (there is no backup of dirty water that can contaminate wash bays or washing areas, access pathways or storage areas).
    2. Stores effluent in a biosecure manner until it can be disposed or treated.
    3. Wash water, manure and organic matter are managed and disposed of in accordance with municipal, provincial and federal legislation and regulation.
  6. Use of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) (see Figure 13 as an example)
    1. Wear PPE that provides effective protection for the process and chemicals used.
      1. PPE recommendations can often be found on the detergent and disinfectant manufacturer's label.
      2. Another source of recommendations is the chemical Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). An MSDS is a document that contains information on the potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental) and how to work safely with the chemical product.
      3. Most importantly, do not re-contaminate the transport unit after final pathogen inactivation step.
An example of protective personal equipment used for cleaning and disinfection.
Figure 13: Illustrates an example of protective personal equipment, such as a full body waterproof outer wear, variety of masks and respirators, hearing protection, eye protection, hard hat, gloves and footwear. A red circle with a line through it is placed over the picture of the footwear to emphasize that the biofilm and organic matter on the footwear are not acceptable.
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