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Biosecurity for Canadian Cervid Farms Producer Planning Guide
Appendix 1: Glossary

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A community/aggregation of microbial organisms (often bacteria) held together by secretions that form a mucus-like layer on the surfaces of objects including living tissue. The organisms within biofilms bind tightly to each other and to surfaces and are more difficult to remove and inactivate.
A set of practices used to minimize the presence of pests and the transmission of pathogens in animal and plant populations including their introduction (bio-exclusion), spread within the populations (bio-management), and release (bio-containment).
Pertaining to or a member of the family cervidae or the deer family of ruminants. Species farmed in Canada include elk, red deer, white-tailed deer, fallow deer, sika deer, mule deer, reindeer and moose.
The physical removal of organic material from a surface. It includes dry cleaning (scraping, brushing, wiping), a wet cleaning procedure (washing the surface with water and a detergent, soap, enzyme or other chemical) and drying of surfaces. It precedes disinfection.
The mixing of groups of animals of the same species or between animals of a different species.
Composted / Composting:
Is the actively managed process of aerobic decomposition of organic material, primarily by microbes into humus.
Controlled Access Point (CAP):
A visually-defined entry point through which all traffic (vehicles, people, animals, inputs and equipment) will enter a risk area. The CAP provides the ability to control access/movements and implement biosecurity measures to minimize pathogen transmission between risk areas.
The distribution of potentially infectious material from one animal to another, or between facilities, equipment or vehicles by animals, people or things.
Direct contact:
Close physical contact between animals including nose-to-nose, social interaction or breeding.
A chemical applied to surfaces to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms.
The application of a physical or chemical process to a surface for the purpose of destroying micro-organisms.
Emerging disease:
A new disease or syndrome that occurs from the evolution or change of an existing pathogen or parasite resulting in a change of host range, vector, pathogenicity or strain; or the occurrence of a previously unrecognized infection or disease.
Endemic disease:
Is the constant presence of disease or infectious agent in a specific population or area. In animals, it is sometimes referred to as enzootic disease.
Indirect contact:
Transmission of a pathogen that occurs without directly coming into contact with the source (for example: transferring or a pathogen via an aerosol or contaminated object).
The invasion and multiplication or reproduction of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, prions and parasites in the tissues of a living animal.
Infectious disease:
Disease caused by pathogens (e.g. parasites, bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions).
The strategy of segregating animals, new or returning animals, and animals that are known to be ill from the resident herd or the general population for a specified time period to ensure an inapparent or subclinical disease/pathogen is not introduced into the resident herd or population.
Illness or disease; a measure of the frequency of a disease or illness in a population.
Is the measure of the number of deaths in a population.
The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a population of animals.
Any disease producing agent or microorganism including but not limited to bacteria, fungi, viruses, prion and parasites.
Is an organism (plant, animal –domestic or wild –fungus, bacteria etc.), that injures, irritates or damages livestock or crops or poses a risk for the transmission of disease.
Infectious proteins that are abnormal forms of normal cellular proteins, that proliferate by inducing the normal protein to convert to the abnormal form, and may include pathogenic forms which arise sporadically, as a result of genetic mutation, or by transmission (as by ingestion of infected tissue) and which upon accumulation in the brain cause a prion disease.
Reportable / Notifiable diseases:
May be provincial or federal requirements for the reporting of diseases outlined in their animal disease legislation. For additional information, contact the appropriate authorities.
Post-mortem examination:
A medical procedure conducted on an animal carcass to determine the cause of death and/or the presence of other physical changes, injuries and/or diseases.
The chance of an unfavourable event occurring that affects animal and/or human health.
Risk assessment:
The process of evaluating the potential risk a pathogen and/or organism has of causing an unfavourable event that affects animal health/productivity and/or human health and the impact of the event.
Sub-clinical infection:
When an animal is infected with a pathogen without showing clinical signs of disease. May occur early in infection (during the incubation period) or with a very mild form, or following clinical disease. Sub-clinically infected animals may shed pathogens/pests and pose a risk of transmission.
An organism such as a mosquito, fly, flea, tick, rodent, animal or person that transmits pathogens from an infected host (a deer or elk) to another animal. A biological vector is one in which the pathogen develops or multiplies in the vector's body before becoming infective to the recipient animal. A mechanical vector is one which transmits an infective organism from one host to another, but which is not essential to the life cycle of the pathogen.
Zoonotic disease:
A disease that can be shared between animals and humans.
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