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National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard (second edition)

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Additional Biosecurity Measures

A level of biosecurity to be practiced to mitigate for situations where recommended practices cannot be followed (i.e. recommended may be an "all in/all out" system). Where this is not possible (i.e. as in the case of a multi-age premises) additional biosecurity precautions need to be implemented.


An area or room that immediately precedes the Restricted Access Zone (RAZ) and provides a transition from the Controlled Access Zone (CAZ).


When used in reference to chemicals such as rodenticides, means approved by the appropriate regulatory authority for the specific usage mentioned in the text.


Any structure that encloses poultry flocks including sheds, runs, etc.

Beneficial practice

A management practice, technique or technology that, when adopted, results in improvement and increased sustainability of the operation.

Biosecurity program

A risk reduction program that conforms to Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) national standards and is designed to prevent and control the introduction and spread of pathogens.

Controlled Access Point (CAP)

Visually defined entry point(s) through which all traffic, such as workers, equipment, feed trucks, etc. will enter the Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) and/or the Restricted Access Zone (RAZ).

Controlled Access Zone (CAZ)

The area of land and buildings constituting the poultry production area of the premises that is accessible through a securable controlled access point.


Free of any visible accumulation of organic matter and debris or other residues.


Any material that may be capable of harbouring disease-causing organisms or pests such as discarded equipment or machinery, manure, dead poultry or parts of dead poultry, egg white, egg yolk, egg shells, feathers and soil.


The application of a physical or chemical process to a surface for the purpose of destroying or inhibiting the activity of disease-causing micro-organisms.


A period of time between flocks, starting with a barn or flock area being emptied of poultry and ending with the placement of new poultry. It allows for the natural reduction in numbers of disease-causing micro-organisms within the barn or flock area. The effective period can be reduced by cleaning and disinfecting at the beginning of the period.

Endemic Diseases

Diseases that are constantly present within a region or population.

Enhanced Biosecurity

At times when a disease outbreak is suspected on the premises or has been identified in the vicinity, extra biosecurity measures may be required and increased emphasis placed on existing biosecurity procedures.

Essential Visitors

A person who enters the Restricted Access Zone (RAZ), and has a necessary role in the farm operation, other than personnel concerned with day-to-day poultry production on the premises. Visitors include veterinarians, service and delivery people, suppliers and regulators.

Foreign Animal Diseases

Infectious diseases that normally do not occur in the country either because they have never been present there or because they were eradicated and then kept out by government control measures or agricultural practices.


A group of poultry managed as a distinct population.

Flock Area

Area/range that unconfined (outdoor) poultry occupy.


Any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms. This may include but is not limited to equipment, farm vehicles and articles of clothing or shoes.


A secure fastening device that requires a key, code or key fob to open.

Non-Essential Visitors

People and their equipment who do not require access to the Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) and Restricted Access Zone (RAZ).
These include but are not limited to guests, friends and family.


Capable of causing disease.


Biological agents, such as a bacteria or virus which have the potential to cause diseases.


Includes insects, spiders, ticks, rodents, wild birds and other animals that pose a nuisance to poultry.


Suitable for drinking.


All birds reared or kept in captivity for breeding, the production of eggs or meat for consumption, for production of other commercial products, for restocking supplies of game birds or for breeding these categories of birds.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Specialized clothing and equipment worn by an individual to provide a protective barrier against exposure and injury from chemical, physical or biological hazards. Personal protective equipment also reduces the transmission of pathogens to poultry from contaminated clothing, equipment and dirty hands.


A parcel of land with a continuous property boundary and defined by a legal land description or, in its absence, by geo-referenced coordinates, on which or on any part of which poultry are grown, kept, assembled or disposed of.

Producer Guidance

Examples and beneficial practices to facilitate achievement of the standard.


A code of conduct or defined procedure to be followed.

Reportable Disease

A disease that must be immediately reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). Reportable diseases in poultry are Notifiable Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease (velogenic), Pullorum Disease (Salmonella pullorum), and Fowl Typhoid (Salmonella gallinarum). These diseases are also "Foreign Animal Diseases" in Canada.

Restricted Access Zone (RAZ)

An area inside the Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) that is used, or intended to be used, to house poultry including semi-confined and range production and where personnel and equipment access is more restricted than the CAZ. The RAZ is sometimes referred to as the Production Area or Restricted Area (RA) in other poultry production documents and guides.

Spiking Males

Sexually mature male poultry introduced into a breeding flock in order to maintain fertility by boosting mating frequency.

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)

Documented procedure based on generally accepted good practices that describe in detail the steps followed to meet an objective (for example a SOP that details the barn cleaning and disinfection procedure).

Target Outcome

The goal that all keepers of poultry, regardless of the size of their flock, should aim for if they are to protect their flocks from the introduction and spread of avian diseases.

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