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Canadian Beef Cattle On-Farm Biosecurity Standard
Schedule 2: Glossary

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Land and Operations

Farmyard, Home Quarter or Headquarters
The operation's home farm, ranch or land parcel.Footnote 2
Business entity: typically comprised of one or more parcels of land.
Production Area (PA) or Stock-Keeping Area
The operation's corrals, pens, barns, and pastures where livestock are or may be kept.Footnote 3


Grain-based animal feed
Grass/legume-based animal feed


Farm machinery and implements, livestock conveyances, excluding vehicles for personal and business transportation
Intended for personal and business transportation (not livestock transportation)


Commingled Animals
Animals having contact with animals of other species, or from other operations
The active process (piled, windrowed, turned, (etc.) of controlled biological decomposition of bedding/manure/waste to eliminate disease and produce a mature soil amendment Provision of compost for retail packaging and sales typically meets this definition. Piled or stored manure does not.
High-risk Animals
Animals with an unknown or greater risk of transmitting a disease than others, including those of unknown health status, of a different species, not part of the herd, returning after being away from the herd, or sick or recently recovered
Highly Susceptible Animals
Animals that are at greater risk of infection following disease exposure than others, including calves, young stock, sick, stressed, or recently recovered, or lacking immunity or resistance
Incoming Animals
Animals that have been purchased/acquired for introduction into the resident herd or animals returning from a brief absence from the herd (exhibition, show, etc.)
Includes staff, owners and operators and their family members
Includes vermin, such as mice, rats, etc., insects, and birds
Includes all people entering the Farmyard (home quarter or headquarters) or Production Area with permission, e.g. service providers and professionals, school tours, international visitors, etc.; excludes personnel
Includes game and non-game animals such as deer, elk, etc., fur-bearing animals such as skunk, beaver, etc., predators such as coyotes, wolves, etc., and birds

Biosecurity Terminology

Those practices that prevent or mitigate disease from entering, spreading within or being released from operations that may contain livestock
Biosecurity Zones
An area where biosecurity procedures are practiced/monitored to reduce the transmission of disease, e.g. Controlled Zone and/or Restricted Access Zone
A practice that removes accumulated organic matter and dirt. May be followed by disinfection
Controlled Access
Access is managed by way of clear entry/exit points in a visually identifiable perimeter demarcation. Might include gates, Texas gates or driveways in fences or other visually identifiable perimeter demarcations.
Controlled Access Zones (CAZ)
An area where access is controlled or managed, constituting the home quarter or headquarters, accessible through a controlled access point
Comparable context to the Home Quarter or Headquarters of a beef cattle operation
Direct Contact
Close physical contact between animals (nose-to-nose, social interaction, breeding, (etc.)
A broadly applied term encompassing the introduction, transmission, spread and / or existence of a range of pests, pathogens and other disease-causing agents, including toxins. The emphasis of this Standard is disease.
A practice that inactivates or destroys disease organisms; must be preceded by cleaning
Any inanimate object or substance on which disease may be carried or transferred. May include but is not limited to: vehicles, equipment, tools (veterinary and other), clothing or shoes, etc.
Indirect Contact
Common contact between animals through a person, piece of equipment, surface, insect, etc.
Generally practiced procedure that is followed by the operator(s), and not necessarily documented or detailed to the extent of a protocol
Defined and documented procedure to be followed, detailing the steps to be taken to meet an objective
Restricted Access Zones (RAZ)

Area or physical location where livestock are or may be held and where additional procedures to reduce disease transmission are applied, including further restrictions on the movements of people and equipment

Typically accessed through a controlled access point, from the Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) and contained within the CAZ

Comparable in context to the Production Area of a beef cattle operation, although access often cannot be controlled and location is often outside the Home Quarter and Headquarters

An overarching set of practices that reduce the presence of organic material/debris and reduce the presence, survivability and infectivity of disease agents
Secured Access
Access through controlled access points is prevented, other than from deliberate non-compliance. This might include gates or doors in fences or buildings, etc. in visually identifiable perimeter demarcations capable of restricting livestock movements and human movements other than deliberate non-compliance.
These are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They may be endemic or reportable, and include bTB, Brucellosis, Rabies, and Ringworm, all of which occur in cattle.
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